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舞蹈治療作家姜愛玲老師vs swsnews 明星報總編輯張恭銘Jeff名人會客室2021平面雙語獨家專訪: 舞蹈治療與健康**Dance Therapy and Health 請問舞蹈治療的緣起?

爽爆新聞網/ 2021.01.22 14:04

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舞蹈治療作家姜愛玲老師vs swsnews 明星報總編輯張恭銘Jeff名人會客室2021平面雙語獨家專訪:

舞蹈治療與健康**Dance Therapy and Health

Q4. 請問舞蹈治療的緣起?

A:早期的心理學領域中,已有好幾位心理學者觀察到,許多心理疾病與身體語彙之間關連甚大,而人類學家在研究人類語言的模型時也發展出一套肌肉運動知覺動力學,分析人類身體溝通模式,相信人類經常運用非語言方式溝通。身體語言比文字的組合包含更廣,人們在說話時週遭空間的運用、手部的姿勢、語調高低的改變和臉部表情變化等皆為研究範疇。

心理學家William Condon認為人們說話時的身體動作和語言型態關係密切。當人們說話時,身體持續在變化,而此變化的部分原因和聽者與說話者雙方之間的動作互動有密切的關係。此項非語言的研究發現對日後舞蹈治療影響甚鉅。

另一心理學家Welhelm Reich不僅運用心理分析,也觀察個案的身體,了解它們是如何把壓抑加諸於身體上。他很注重個案的動作表達及身體語言,認為他們的任何動作都有其特殊型態,藉由觀察動作進而整理發展出一套特別的韻律動作,來幫助身體去和緊張的部分再度產生連結,同時也有情感表達和放鬆作用。

接著,對易經很有研究的瑞士分析心理學家榮格(Carl Jung)則發展出一套「積極想像」(active imagination)的技巧,並運用這方法讓個案表達潛意識的經驗。他相信,對潛意識象徵性訊息的接觸與了解至為重要,而原始、自然的舞動可在不知不覺中激起動機,將這些動機透過身體具體表達出來,進而處理情緒困擾、激發個人潛能。他使用夢和藝術性的方式理解經驗對個人到底產生了什麼意義。他的論述為日後的舞蹈治療開拓出一條路。

蘇利文(H. S. Sullivan)研究人與人的性格學說,對舞蹈治療也有重大影響。他主張人格是透過累積人際關係所產生的,此觀念應用了互動作用的歷程達到再度社會化。此時,舞蹈治療逐漸在舞蹈與心理學的領域紮根。

舞蹈治療真正開始幫助人們心理成長是在第二次世界大戰之後,美國許多官兵戰後回到日常生活時,產生了嚴重的適應問題,因為他們在戰爭期間面對戰爭中生與死所帶來的刺激,其後遺症在離開軍旅生活後仍持續困擾著他們,嚴重影響其日常生活(許多電影都以此為主題,例如電影「越戰獵鹿人」、「第一滴血」等雖以越戰為背景,但仍闡述相同現象),面對這群適應不良的退伍軍人,美國政府曾經嘗試各種方法協助他們重新建立新生活,包括輔導與心理分析,但效果不彰,所以一些臨床心理學家們開始嘗試新的醫療方法,將以往所關注的焦點轉移到人際關係和社會關懷上,發展出嶄新方式讓這些人參與,例如團體治療、心理劇、繪畫治療等。

此時,美國東西岸不約而同的有雀絲(Marian Chase)和翠迪.蘇(Trudi Schoop)等人開始用即興的創造性舞蹈進行教學,鼓勵學員藉由肢體動作表達心靈感受,開始以身體為媒介「說話」,在身體動作與心靈的互動中引導人們了解自我。許多人在上完雀絲的課之後,感覺身體與情緒皆獲得很大的紓解,此一成效逐漸引起首府華盛頓聖伊莉莎白醫院(St. Elizabeth Hospital)醫生們的注意,深入了解後發現她的舞蹈課程不僅對一般人有幫助,對精神病患也有很大的影響,於是他們在1942年開始邀請她到醫院帶領病患的舞蹈活動,因此她便成為美國第一位正式的舞蹈治療師,她在舞蹈治療領域中的貢獻也深深影響日後舞蹈治療的發展。

在此同時,美國西岸的懷特豪斯(Mary

Whitehouse)則飛往瑞士,繼續她對於榮格心理學理論的研究,將部分理論基礎與舞蹈作結合。在她的舞蹈教學中,一方面讓學員以身體動作表露真實情感,另一方面也讓他們彼此分享動作中所顯現的象徵意涵,幫助他們統整自己、察覺自己隱藏於內心不易察覺的部分,而這一部分很可能就是造成身心失調的重要關鍵(吳雅珍,民88)。

舞蹈治療的觀念在近代心理學研究中開始萌芽,在上述先驅們努力的實務推展中逐漸成形,雖然她們在理論基礎及實踐上皆有所不同,但皆有共同的基本概念與模式,至此便描繪出舞蹈治療的初步輪廓,而這種把舞蹈動作與心靈探索結合的方式就逐漸形成一種新的專業,就稱之為舞蹈/動作治療(Dance / Movement Therapy)。

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Q4. The cause of dance therapy

A4. In the early field of psychology, several psychologists have observed that many mental illnesses are closely related to body language, and anthropologists have developed a set of muscle motion percensive dynamics when studying models of human language, analyzing human body communication patterns, and believing that humans often communicate in nonverling ways. Body language is broader than a combination of words, and the use of space around people as they speak, the posture of their hands, changes in tone, and changes in facial expressions are all areas of study.

Psychologist William Condon believes that people’s body movements are closely related to language patterns when they speak. As people speak, the body continues to change, and part of the reason for this change is closely related to the interaction between the listener and the speaker. The non-language study found a huge impact on future dance therapy.

Another psychologist, Welhelm Reich, not only uses psychological analysis, but also observes the bodies of individual cases to understand how they put depression on the body. He pays great attention to the individual action expression and body language, think that any of their movements have their special pattern, by observing the action and then organize and develop a set of special rhythmic movements, to help the body to re-connect with the tense parts, but also emotional expression and relaxation.

Carl Jung, a Swiss analytical psychologist who has studied the subject, then developed a set of “active imagination” techniques that allow cases to express subconscious experiences. He believed that contact and understanding of the subconscious symbolic messages was of the importance, and that primitive, natural dances could unknowingly stimulate motivation, which was expressed through the body, thereby dealing with emotional distress and stimulating personal potential. He uses dreams and art to understand what experience means to an individual. His essays opened the way for future dance therapy.

Sullivan (H. S. Sullivan’ study of human and human personality theology also has a significant impact on dance therapy. He advocated that personality is generated through the accumulation of interpersonal relationships, the concept of the application of interactive process to achieve socialization. At this time, dance therapy gradually take root in the field of dance and psychology.

Dance therapy really began to help people grow psychologically after World War II, when many American officers and soldiers returned to their daily lives after the war, creating serious adaptation problems because they faced the stimulation of life and death during the war, and the after-effects continued to plague them after leaving military life, seriously affecting their daily lives (many films have taken this as a theme, such as the film “Vietnam War Deer Hunter”, “The First Blood” and so on. In the face of this group of adaptable veterans, the U.S. government has tried various ways to help them rebuild their lives, including counseling and psychological analysis, but to no avail, so some clinical psychologists have begun to experiment with new medical methods, shifting the focus to interpersonal and social care and developing new ways to involve them, such as group therapy, psychotherapy, painting therapy, and so on.

At this point, the east and west coasts of the United States are joined by Marian Chase and Triddy. Trudi Schoop and others began teaching with improvisational creative dances, encouraging students to express their feelings through body movements, and began to “talk” with the body as a medium to guide people to understand themselves in the interaction between body movements and the mind. Many people feel a great deal of relief, both physically and emotionally, after their lessons, an effect that has gradually led to st. Elizabeth’s Hospital in Washington, D.C. Dr. Elizabeth Hospital’s attention, in-depth study found that her dance courses not only help the general public, but also have a great impact on the mentally ill, so they began inviting her to the hospital in 1942 to lead the patient’s dance activities, so she became the first formal dance therapist in the United States, and her contribution to the field of dance therapy also deeply influenced the development of dance therapy in the future.

Meanwhile, Mary

Whitehouse flew to Switzerland to continue her research on Jung’s theory of psychology, combining some of the theoretical basis with dance. In her dance teaching, on the one hand, the students show real emotions with physical movements, on the other hand, let them share with each other the symbolic meaning of the movement, to help them integrate themselves, aware of their hidden in the heart of the imperceptible part, and this part is likely to be the important key to causing physical and mental disorders (Wu Yazhen, Min 88).

The concept of dance therapy began to germinate in the study of modern psychology, and gradually took shape in the practical development of the above-mentioned pioneers’ efforts, although they differed in theoretical basis and practice, but all shared basic concepts and patterns, thus depicting the initial outline of dance therapy, and this way of combining dance movement with spiritual exploration gradually formed a new specialty, called Dance / Movement Therapy.

特別感謝舞蹈治療Q&A專業諮詢姜愛玲老師

關於姜愛玲老師的介紹

姜愛玲(Irene

 

  舞蹈/動作治療師

  美國Liberty University心理諮商碩士/New York University文化暨傳播碩士、澳洲Wesley Institute of Minisry & the Arts舞蹈治療研究所。

 

  原本唸的是數位傳播,後來轉換跑道成為行動工作者,長年致力於全人身心療癒/整合的實踐與傳承,文字創作則聚焦於你我所身處的當代社會,以詼諧直白的文筆反映人生百態,透過旅行、影像及文字品味分享現代生活的多元樣貌,足跡已遍及世界四十餘國。

 

  現任:恩主公醫院精神科暨日間照護 舞蹈治療師/台灣亞太健康管理協會 理事、舞蹈治療顧問/台灣費登奎斯教育中心「動中覺察」合格教師/台灣舞蹈治療研究協會 專業認證舞蹈治療師。

 

  【歷年著作】

  《Disney‘s GOTCHA!幼兒美語教材》(合著)

  《心在跳舞:遇見舞蹈治療》

  《刺蝟小孩不難搞:要讓孩子聽話,先聽孩子說話》

  《滿分爸媽養成書》(合著)

  《女生,練習一個人旅行》

  《輔助暨整合療法》(合著)

  《別再委屈自己求得他人認同:不再委屈求全的20堂必學人生突破法則》

 

  【最新著作】

  《你聽見了孩子的求救訊號嗎?資深動作治療師帶你從孩子的言行看見孩子的問題》

 

  【歷年譯作】

  《Da Ai Shou: Healing Hands of Universal Love大愛手小冊》英文版〔合譯〕

  《瑜珈美人全書》

  《刺客正傳2:皇家刺客》〔上/下〕

  《刺客正傳3:刺客任務》〔上/下〕

  《魔法製造有限公司》

  《舞蹈動作治療:療傷的藝術》

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Fifi.Chiang

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Irene Chiang

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dancetherapytw

@gmail.com

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