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【教宗反暴政】教宗方濟各 告誡文痛批資本主義

立報/本報訊 2013.12.04 00:00
策劃、編譯■劉耘

行事簡樸親民的天主教宗方濟各,

日前在告誡文中嚴厲批評不受約束的資本主義是「新暴政」,

他對社會財富不均的批判贏得許多左翼人士讚賞,

不過同時也有人批評,教宗依然忽視其他社會中的不平等。

教宗方濟各11月26日在一份文件中,批評不受約束的資本主義是「新暴政」,並呼籲全球領袖對抗貧窮及不斷加劇的不平等現象。這份文件是他對於任期內目標的宣言,同時也呼籲天主教教會革新。

(上圖)教宗方濟各準備向群眾講道,圖攝於2013年11月27日。(圖文/路透)

這份84頁的教宗告誡文,是教宗方濟各首度以教宗身分發表的正式文件,內容涵蓋了他自3月成為1,300年來首位非歐洲本土的教宗以後,他所發表過的佈道與談話,也讓這些談話中的許多看法成為正式宣言。

不平等的經濟體制會殺人

告誡文中,方濟各加重了他先前對全球經濟體制的評論,重批「金錢崇拜」,敦促政治人物「剷除造成不平等的結構性原因」並盡力提供工作機會、醫療照護及教育給所有民眾。

他也呼籲富人分享財富。「正如十誡中的『汝不可殺人』,就為了保衛寶貴人命而設下明確限制;今日,我們也應將『汝不可』這句話,套用在獨占及不平等的經濟體制上,因為這種經濟體制會殺人。」他在文件中寫道。

▲梵蒂岡公布教宗方濟各的《福音的喜樂》告誡文,圖為主教謝里(Carlo Maria Celli)正在宣讀告誡文,攝於2013年11月26日。(圖文/路透)

教宗說:「上了年紀的遊民因遭驅逐而被凍死不是新聞,股市跌2點才是新聞,這世界怎麼會這樣?」

義大利神學家法喬立稱這份文件為「方濟各的宣言」,資深的梵蒂岡分析家塔維斯則稱之為「教會改革大憲章」。

「方濟各對貧窮的發言,使他與天主教中的新自由主義思維衝突;這種思維在美國尤其盛行。」法喬立說。

這份告誡文名為《福音的喜樂》,以方濟各簡樸的佈道風格發表,而非像前幾任教宗一樣使用偏學術的行文,標誌了他與過往教宗的不同,也強調了教會的主要宗旨是傳播福音。

以聖號之名 樹立簡樸典範

告誡文所亟思的,是如何在世俗化的衝擊下,重振西方的教會;拉丁美洲福音派新教也經常關注同樣的問題,所以贏得失望的天主教徒的支持。

告誡文中,經濟不平等是教宗最顧慮的議題之一。這位76歲的教宗呼籲眾人徹底改變金融體制,警告財富分配不均會無可避免地導致暴力。

他否認這純然只是民粹主義,他呼籲採取「超越僅只是社會救濟心態」的行動。他補充道:「我祈求主賜予我們更多真心為社會、人民及窮人著想的政治人物。」

自當選以後,方濟各已在教會中樹立起簡樸的楷模。他放棄華麗的梵蒂岡使徒宮,選擇住在一棟客房;他也以福特汽車代步,並於10月時下令一位花數百萬歐元建造奢華宅邸的主教無限期停職。

他選擇的聖號「方濟各」源自於一位同名的中世紀義大利聖者;這位聖者因選擇貧困的生活而聞名。

身為8人顧問小組一員的慕尼黑樞機主教馬克思表示,教宗在告誡文中的批判是針對現代社會,但同時也是針對教會自身;教會總是被指謫該檢討內部運作,並時常背離其傳播福音的宗旨。(路透)

Pope Francis attacked unfettered(1) capitalism as "a new tyranny" and beseeched global leaders to fight poverty and growing inequality, in a document on Tuesday setting out a platform for his papacy(2) and calling for a renewal of the Catholic Church.

The 84-page document, known as an apostolic exhortation(3), was the first major work he has authored alone as pope and makes official many views he has aired in sermons and remarks since he became the first non-European pontiff(4) in 1,300 years in March.

In it, Francis went further than previous comments criticizing the global economic system, attacking the "idolatry of money", and urged politicians to "attack the structural causes of inequality" and strive to provide work, healthcare and education to all citizens.

He also called on rich people to share their wealth. "Just as the commandment 'Thou shalt not kill' sets a clear limit in order to safeguard the value of human life, today we also have to say 'thou shalt not' to an economy of exclusion and inequality. Such an economy kills," Francis wrote.

"How can it be that it is not a news item when an elderly homeless person dies of exposure, but it is news when the stock market loses 2 points?"

Italian theologian Massimo Faggioli greeted the work as "the manifesto of Francis" while veteran Vatican analyst John Thavis called it a "Magna Carta for church reform".

"The message on poverty sets Pope Francis on a collision course with neo-liberal Catholic thought, especially in the United States," said Faggioli.

Called "Evangelii Gaudium" (The Joy of the Gospel), the exhortation is presented in Francis' simple preaching style, distinct from the more academic writings of former popes, and stresses the Church's central mission of spreading the gospel.

A meditation on how to revitalize a Church suffering encroaching(5) secularization in the West, the exhortation echoed the zeal often heard from evangelical Protestants who have won over disaffected Catholics in Latin America.

In it, economic inequality features as one of the issues Francis is most concerned about, and the 76-year-old pontiff calls for an overhaul of the financial system and warns that unequal distribution of wealth inevitably leads to violence.

Denying it was simple populism, he called for action "beyond a simple welfare mentality" and added: "I beg the Lord to grant us more politicians who are genuinely disturbed by the state of society, the people, the lives of the poor."

Since his election, Francis has set an example for austerity in the Church, living in a Vatican guest house rather than the ornate Apostolic Palace, travelling in a Ford Focus, and last month suspending a bishop who spent millions of euros on his luxurious residence.

He chose to be called "Francis" after the medieval Italian saint of the same name famed for choosing a life of poverty.

Munich Cardinal Reinhard Marx, one of eight special papal advisers, said the pope aimed his criticism at modern society "but also at the Church itself, which is always tempted to look inward and betray its mission of evangelization".Reuters

關鍵字詞

1.unfettered(a.)不受控制的

2.papacy(n.)教宗在任期間

3.apostolic exhortation(n.)教宗告誡文

4.pontiff(n.)教宗

5.encroach(v.)侵入

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