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【左翼之城】起義20年後 薩巴塔組織熱潮不減

立報/本報訊 2014.01.08 00:00
策劃、編譯■劉耘

20年前北美自貿協定生效這天,墨西哥原住民組成的「薩巴塔」武裝團體群起抗爭,

自此成為反全球自由貿易的先驅,領導者馬可仕甚至與切格瓦拉齊名。

如今,他們建立自治市並淡出世界舞台,其反抗新自由主義的理念及模式,則影響國際上無數左翼運動。

墨西哥南部高山一座如畫般的小鎮,隨處可見反政府組織「薩巴塔」的紀念物,他們於1994年發起的暴力起義撼動這個地區,也讓他們成為世界知名的組織。

(上圖)墨西哥聖克里斯托巴市,一個攤販販售薩巴塔玩偶鑰匙圈,圖攝於2014年1月1日。(圖文/路透)

數千名遊客及支持者每年都會來到這裡,到一間名為「革命」的酒吧喝莫吉托調酒,並在蒙面導遊的帶領下拜訪臨近的薩巴塔社群、購買鑲有「副總司令馬可仕」圖像的紀念品。這位令全球左翼人士振奮的領導者甚至與切格瓦拉齊名。

墨西哥開放自由貿易當年,馬可仕於奇亞帕斯州向政府「宣戰」、領導原住民武裝起義;時隔20年的現在,薩巴塔組織自世界舞台上淡出,而他們留下的遺產也受到質疑。

薩巴塔民族解放軍以墨西哥革命英雄艾米利亞諾.薩巴塔為名,當年與政府軍爆發持續12天的衝突,據稱造成政府軍至少140人身亡,也因這場起義被反全球化運動支持者視為早期象徵。

如今,奇亞帕斯州仍是墨西哥最窮困的一州,而薩巴塔的蒙面詩人領袖馬可仕則從眾人目光前完全消失。

善於成為公眾焦點、經常叼著菸斗出現的馬可仕,自2006年最後一次騎著馬橫跨墨西哥、批評墨西哥政治階級後,就未公開露面。

「現在是2013年12月,就如同20年前一樣寒冷;而此刻也和過去一樣,同樣一面旗幟保護著我們:那就是反抗。」馬可仕日前在一篇3千字的公報中這麼寫到,並在公報中批評墨西哥總統潘尼亞尼托、前總統卡德隆及那些「收了錢的媒體」。

薩巴塔為當地貧困的馬雅印地安人帶來尊嚴。這些馬雅印地安人曾遭嚴重歧視,甚至不能走在聖克里斯托巴市的街道上。

墨西哥國會於2001年通過賦予原住民更多權益的法律,但這對薩巴塔來說還不夠。他們在奇亞帕斯州成立5個自治市,自訂自治法、健康和教育體制。

《路透》記者獲准允許進入薩巴塔的歐文提克社區時,社區洋溢著歡欣的氣氛。

大門掛著花圈裝飾,電視播出這支墨西哥軍隊進攻的影片時,四周響起樂聲,攤販則販售著印有革命圖樣的上衣及薩巴塔小雕像。

著有《奇亞帕斯州的反抗》的新墨西哥州立大學教授哈維估計,約有15萬人住在薩巴塔社區,當地的原住民領導者提升了居住品質,措施包括禁止飲酒、促進女權並創辦馬雅語學校。「奇亞帕斯州存在著兩個主權。」哈維說:「法律上,這些社群不被墨西哥政府承認,但政治上是容忍薩巴塔存在的。」(路透)

▲歐文提克社區房舍上的壁畫,圖攝於2009年7月25日。(圖/Oisin Prendiville攝 來源/Flickr創用CC)

The picturesque town high in the mountains in southern Mexico is filled with relics of the rebel Zapatista movement that rocked the region with violence in 1994 and catapulted (1) it to worldwide fame.

Now thousands of tourists and sympathizers (2) come here every year to drink mojitos at a bar called Revolucion, visit nearby Zapatista communities with masked guides, and pick up souvenirs emblazoned with the image of Subcomandante Marcos, who thrilled leftists across the globe and won comparisons with Che Guevara.

Twenty years after Marcos led armed indigenous (3) insurgents in Chiapas state in a "declaration of war" against the government the day Mexico opened its borders to free trade, the Zapatistas have faded from national view and their legacy is in question.

Named for Mexican revolutionary hero Emiliano Zapata, the Zapatista National Liberation Army sparked a 12-day battle with the Army that claimed at least 140 lives, becoming an early symbol for supporters of the anti-globalization movement.

Today Chiapas remains Mexico's poorest state, and Marcos, the Zapatistas' masked poet leader, has all but disappeared.

Skilled in courting publicity, the pipe-smoking Marcos has not made any major public appearance since 2006, when he rode across Mexico on horseback to condemn its political class.

"It's December 2013. It's just as cold as it was 20 years ago, and today, like back then, the same flag protects us: that of rebellion," Marcos wrote in a 3,000-word communique published this week that railed against President Enrique Pena Nieto, his predecessor Felipe Calderon, and the "paid press."

The Zapatistas brought to prominence the plight of the region's impoverished Maya Indians, who were once so ostracized (4) that they could not even walk on San Cristobal's sidewalks.

In 2001, Congress passed legislation to give the indigenous more rights. But it was not enough for the Zapatistas, who set up their own autonomous justice, health and education systems in five municipalities (5) in Chiapas.

In a visit granted to Reuters reporters in the Zapatista community of Oventic, the atmosphere was cheerful.

The gates were decorated with flowered wreaths, music played as footage of the Mexican army's strike showed on televisions, and stalls sold revolutionary T-shirts and Zapatista figurines.

Neil Harvey, a New Mexico State University professor and author of "The Chiapas Rebellion," estimates about 150,000 people live in the Zapatista communities, where indigenous leaders have raised living standards, including outlawing alcohol, improving women's rights and creating Maya language schools.

"There is this existence of two authorities in Chiapas," Harvey said. "Legally, it's still not recognized by the Mexican government, but politically it's tolerated."(Reuters)

關鍵字詞

1.catapulte(v.)躍上

2.sympathizer(n.)支持者

3.indigenous(a.)原住民的

4.ostracize(v.)排斥

5.municipality(n.)自治市

▲墨西哥奇亞帕斯州的歐文提克社區舉行起義20週年慶祝大會,幾位薩巴塔成員站在社區房舍外,圖攝於2013年12月31日。(圖文/路透)

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