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被迫流亡:內戰悲歌 逾2百萬人逃離敘利亞

立報/本報訊 2013.09.11 00:00
策劃、編譯■劉耘

正當西方國家對是否空襲敘利亞爭論不休,

聯合國公布敘國難民數量已超過2百萬人,

湧入鄰國的難民對當地社群造成不少影響,

國際間也該思考如何伸出援手。

聯合國3日表示,現在逃離敘利亞內戰的難民已超過2百萬人,是近代史上空前的人類苦難。

聯合國難民署高級專員古特瑞斯在新聞發布會中表示,敘利亞境內外總人口約有2千萬人,其中1/3民眾被驅逐,將近半數需要協助。

聯合國難民署的數據顯示,1年前的難民數量還停留在20萬;也就是說,跨越各國邊境的人潮,包括男人、女人及小孩的數量,在過去12個月內增加了將近10倍。

人道關懷 鄰國伸援手

「敘利亞成為本世紀的大悲劇,而這場可恥的人道災難帶來近代史上前所未見的苦難及迫遷。」古特瑞斯說:「唯一的安慰是鄰近數國所展現的人道關懷,他們歡迎難民入境並拯救許多難民性命。」

▲敘利亞民眾正試著非法入境土耳其,圖攝於2013年9月9日。(圖文/路透)

不過,難民增加的速度比聯合國難民署一度擔憂的要來的慢。先前,難民署根據2月至3月跨越邊境的人口數(平均每天8千名)預估,難民總數會在年底前達到345萬人。

古特瑞斯表示,今年截至目前為止,每天跨越邊境的平均人數介於5千至6千人間,表示今年底的總數很可能是260萬至270萬。

但他表示,聯合國難民署的數據僅包括受官方登記和正等待登記的難民,而非法難民的數量也許有數十萬人。

敘利亞境內流離失所的民眾數量是425萬人,符合6月的預測。聯合國難民署也表示,敘利亞難民人數增加為鄰近收容國家帶來相當大的壓力。

最壞情況 聯合國有打算

古特瑞斯4日在日內瓦會見伊拉克、約旦、土耳其的外交部長,以及黎巴嫩的社會事務部部長,與這4個收容敘利亞難民的主要國家,一起尋求向國際募集更多援助的方法。

古特瑞斯拒絕評論美國若空襲敘利亞會帶來的影響,但表示他們有一些應付意外事故的計畫,不論難民數量激增的原因為何都能因應。

▲約旦近敘利亞邊界的札特立難民營中,敘利亞孩童正在取水,圖攝於2013年9月1日。(圖文/路透)

「在事情好轉之前,我們都得替最壞的情況做好打算。」

聯合國難民署8月表示,他們的努力已讓敘利亞危機目前免於失控。但他們當時也說,敘利亞危機需要一個遠比目前施行的29億美元(約新台幣860億元)難民援助金還要「更為實際且連貫的策略」。

敘利亞為反抗總統阿塞德家族掌權40年而起的抗爭,已轉為漸趨分裂的內戰,造成逾10萬人喪生。

根據聯合國兒童基金會,衝突造成敘利亞孩童的嚴重損失:過去1個學年有39%孩童自學校中輟,超過3千所學校被破壞或摧毀,將近1千所學校被用於安置流離失所的民眾。(路透)

More than 2 million refugees(1) have now fled Syria's civil war in human suffering unparalleled(2) in recent history, the United Nations said on Tuesday.

Of the total Syrian population of about 20 million, either inside or outside the country, one third is displaced(3) and almost half is in need of assistance, U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees António Guterres told a news conference.

The number of refugees stood at about 200,000 just a year ago, so the tide of men, women and children crossing borders has risen almost 10-fold over the past 12 months, figures from the U.N. refugee agency UNHCR showed.

"Syria has become the great tragedy of this century - a disgraceful humanitarian calamity(4) with suffering and displacement unparalleled in recent history," Guterres said. "The only solace is the humanity shown by the neighbouring countries in welcoming and saving the lives of so many refugees."

However, the number of refugees has grown more slowly than UNHCR once feared. It previously projected the total would hit 3.45 million by the end of the year, based on border crossings in February-March that averaged about 8,000 per day.

So far in 2013, the daily figure has averaged between 5,000 and 6,000, which means the total is likely to be 2.6-2.7 million by the end of the year, Guterres said.

But UNHCR's figures include only officially registered refugees and those awaiting registration, and unofficial refugees probably number in the hundreds of thousands, he said.

The number of people displaced inside Syria is 4.25 million, in line with a forecast made in June. The flow of Syrian refugees has piled pressure on neighbouring host countries, UNHCR said.

Guterres will meet the foreign ministers of Iraq, Jordan, and Turkey and the minister of social affairs of Lebanon - the four main hosts of Syrian refugees - in Geneva on Wednesday to work out ways to raise more international aid.

Guterres declined to comment on the impact of possible U.S. air strikes on Syria, but said there were contingency plans in place for a surge in refugees, regardless of the cause.

"We all need to be prepared for things to get worse before they get better."

UNHCR said last month its work had so far stopped the refugee crisis spiralling(5) out of control. But "a far more substantial and coherent strategy" was needed than the $2.9 billion refugee aid effort already underway, it said then.

Syria's uprising against four decades of rule by the family of President Bashar al-Assad has turned into an increasingly sectarian civil war that has killed more than 100,000 people.

The conflict has taken a heavy toll on Syria's children, 39 percent of whom have dropped out of school in the past academic year, according to UNICEF. More than 3,000 schools have been damaged or destroyed and almost 1,000 are being used to house displaced people.(Reuters)

關鍵字詞

1.refugee(n.)難民

2.unparalleled(a.)空前未有的

3.displace(n.)迫使離開

4.calamity(v.)災難

5.spiral(v.)不斷增加或減少

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