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歐洲右翼大串連:極右翼團體集結 反對者群起對抗

立報/李威撰 2012.04.04 00:00
策劃、編譯■李威撰歐洲各地團體3月31日於丹麥會師,意欲打造一反伊斯蘭的泛歐聯盟。通過對移民及好戰伊斯蘭主義者的恐懼來尋求民眾支持,這項計畫考驗著邊緣團體的凝聚力。Far-right (1) groups from across Europe meet in Denmark on Saturday to try to form a pan-European anti-Islamist alliance, a project that will test the cohesion of a fringe trying to build support from fears about immigration and militant Islamists.參與這股經過長期規劃的極右翼運動的團體,來自北歐國家、英國、波蘭等地。來自阿爾及利亞的法籍穆斯林在法國西南部殺害7人,他們可望會利用這起事件所激發的民眾反感。The long-planned gathering of far right-wing movements from Nordic countries, Britain, Poland and elsewhere is expected to try to exploit revulsion at the killings of seven people this month by a French Muslim of Algerian origin in south-west France.8個月前,狂熱反對伊斯蘭的布列維克在挪威殺害77人,這場極右派的聚會將考驗他們是否已從該起事件的政治打擊中回復過來,以及他們能否進行國際間的協調合作。The meeting eight months after anti-Islam fanatic Anders Behring Breivik killed 77 people in Norway will test whether these groups are recovering from the political blow Breivik dealt them and whether they can coordinate internationally.抨擊者表示,這些邊緣團體是種族主義者,他們想藉機利用移民對歐洲造成的緊張關係。這些團體中,部分成員經常與暴力事件有關。Their detractors say these fringe groups, with members often associated with violent incidents, are racists seeking to latch on to tensions over immigration in Europe.過去15年來,歐洲極右派團體曾有數次整合力量的嘗試,但由於內部分裂與意識形態及領導權的鬥爭而失敗。Several previous attempts by European far-right groups to join forces over the past 15 years have foundered amid splits and feuding over ideology and leadership.保衛英國聯盟領導人藍儂告訴《路透》:「我們沒有預期很多人會前來阿胡斯。」該團體是此次聚會最大的團體之一。他補充,會有幾百人參加,「我們希望這會成為歐洲運動的開端,並持續成長」。"We're not expecting big numbers in Aarhus," Stephen Lennon, the head of the English Defence League (EDL), one of the biggest groups behind the gathering, told Reuters, adding that a few hundred people would attend. "We hope it will be the start of a European movement that will continue to grow."安全專家表示,此次聚會將嘗試推動行動者網絡,提倡保衛歐洲的觀念,避免他們所說的社會伊斯蘭化。Security experts say the meeting will try to launch a network of activists to promote the idea that Europe needs to be defended against what they call Islamification (2) of society.總部在荷蘭的國際反恐中心主任努普表示,受蓋達組織鼓動而在法國犯案謀殺的梅拉「將被拿來利用為宣傳工具……他們(右翼人士)試圖要做的,就是影響政治局面」。Peter Knoope, Director of the Netherlands-based International Centre for Counter-Terrorism, said the murders in France by al Qaeda-inspired gunman Mohamed Merah, "will be exploited in terms of propaganda ... What they (the rightists) are trying to do is to influence the political arena."團體組織所聚集的丹麥,在2005年稍晚曾有一家報紙刊登諷刺先知穆罕默德的漫畫,結果激怒全球各地穆斯林,並於2006年在一些相距遙遠的國家引起暴動。The groups will gather in Denmark, where a newspaper in late 2005 published cartoons lampooning the Prophet Mohammad which angered Muslims around the world and sparked violent riots in far-away countries in 2006.在英國諾丁漢大學研究英國極右派好戰團體的專家古德溫表示,這場會議具有戰略上的重要性,即使人數上看來不是。提到保衛英國聯盟時,古德溫表示:「這裡我們所看到的,是英國政治史上頭一遭有反穆斯林極右團體出面帶領,意圖動員泛歐洲的反伊斯蘭勢力。」Matthew Goodwin, an expert on British far-right militant groups at Nottingham University, said the meeting would be strategically significant, even if the numbers were not. "What we are seeing here for the first time in British political history is an anti-Muslim far-right organisation taking the lead in trying to mobilise pan-European opposition to Islam," Goodwin said, referring to the EDL.德國聯邦憲政保護局漢堡分部主任默克表示,德國的極右派團體主要聚焦於當地與國內議題,但也跟透過網路及各種紀念事件,與歐洲各地理念相同的團體保持聯繫。Manfred Murck, head of the Hamburg branch of Germany's domestic intelligence service, said German far-right groups mainly have a local or domestic focus, but also have contacts with like-minded (3) groups across Europe over the Internet and through various commemorative events.默克表示:「音樂領域也發揮重要作用,德國及歐洲的其他極右翼組織,與丹麥、瑞典與芬蘭的光頭黨音樂團體都有所連繫。」"The music scene also has an important function, there are contacts between German and other European far-right groups and skinhead music groups in Denmark, Sweden and Finland," Murck said.保衛英國聯盟在社群媒體臉書上表示,這是「反聖戰集會」,意在公開討論「伊斯蘭教法、符合伊斯蘭教法規規定的事物、移民與歐洲的伊斯蘭化」。The EDL said on social media Facebook that its "counter-jihad (4) meeting" aimed to be a public discussion of "sharia law, halal (5), immigration and the continuing Islamification of Europe."■ 保衛德國聯盟(German Defence League)的成員3月31日在丹麥的阿胡斯參加極右翼的街頭聚會。(圖文/路透)阿胡斯當地的反右派團體估計,將有數千人走上街頭與右派團體打對壘,要求尊重民主並容忍外國人。Local groups in Aarhus opposed to the rightists expect thousands to turn out for their rival march through the city, to demand respect for democracy and tolerance of foreigners.官員表示會避免抗議團體碰頭。阿胡斯的穆斯林領袖要求信眾待在家中,要避免被保衛聯盟激怒。Officials said the groups would be kept apart. Muslim leaders in Aarhus have urged their followers to stay home and not let themselves be provoked by the defence leagues.蘭儂預測,類似法國槍手梅拉(遭警方射殺前,他殺害了3名猶太孩童、1名拉比與3名士兵)所發動的攻擊,未來2、30年將會更常發生。Lennon predicted attacks like those by the French gunman Mohamed Merah, who killed three Jewish children, a rabbi and three soldiers before being shot by police, would become more frequent over the next 20-30 years across Europe.保衛英國聯盟創立至今已經3年,儘管組織規模仍小,但在英格蘭發動抗議及遊行時,吸引多達1萬2千人參加。Founded three years ago, the EDL still has a small organisation but has drawn as many as 12,000 people to attend marches and demonstrations it has staged in England.布列維克在他的宣言中聲稱,他跟保衛英國聯盟曾有聯繫,保衛英國聯盟方面則撇清與布列維克的關係,並拒絕被貼上極端主義的標籤。Breivik claimed in his manifesto to have had contact with EDL. The EDL has denied links to Breivik and rejects extremist labels.默克表示,德國極右派團體針對布列維克的行動,在本質與規模上不予認同;但對於他的行為目的卻表示能夠諒解,「他們認為,他犯了一個策略上的錯誤,導致極右派運動受到傷害,並敗壞掉名聲」。Murck said German far-right groups reject the scale and nature of Breivik's action, but showed an understanding for his aims. "They think he made a tactical mistake which damaged and discredited the far-right movement."(路透Reuters)關鍵字詞1. far-right (a.) 極右派的2. Islamification (n.) 伊斯蘭化3. like-minded (a.) 志趣相投的、有一樣看法的4. jihad (n.) 伊斯蘭教的聖戰5. halal (n.) 符合伊斯蘭教規定的事物或行動