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Benthem Crouwel Architects-鹿特丹中央車站 現代式強力線條

欣傳媒/ 2015.06.18 00:00
蘇琨峰

鹿特丹中央車站可說是荷蘭相當重要的一處交通站,除了可提供每日約110,000人的運輸量外,亦是高鐵與輕軌的轉接點,並預計在2025年時每日的運輸量可達到323,000人。在做為一個歐洲地區重要運輸點考量下,荷蘭建築事務所Benthem Crouwel Architects設計出比原車站更明亮、更寬闊且更具良好動線的國際級車站,成為當地顯目的地標性建築。

與都會環境的整合

事務所在規劃上曾碰到個難題-車站南北邊的都會紋理非常地不同。因此在車站的北面事務所設計了一處現代風格化的入口,並儘量縮小建築強力的外立面線條以避免影響周遭都會區Provenierswijk的風格,呼應了Provenierswijk區中19世紀的荷蘭城鎮氛圍,同時將北面入口設計成透明外立面並改善綠化效果。相較之下,南面誇張的強力線條對應了高度成長的都會區風貌,事務所以玻璃與木材創造出國際化與都會化的特徵,並以不銹鋼構成的天花板創造出都會區中的象徵性建築。

事務所表示,鹿特丹中央車站無論在結構線條或是規模上皆能呼應出周遭的都會景觀,而高度也與旅客高度形成不錯的比例感,不但讓鐵路系統自然地融入了這城市之中,也改善了原本舊車站周遭的環境。事務所也將原電車站移至車站東面,以創造出車站前方一處連續性的公共空間規劃了可容納750台汽車及5,200輛腳踏車的空間,以及無障礙式的交通流動空間,以利行人與自行車的流動動線。

內部及外立面

自然光的採用、利用陽光製造出溫暖的室內空間及現代化的外觀可說是事務所設計時重要的元素概想。而鹿特丹中央車站的透明月台屋頂,讓火車進站時有著一種獨特的感覺,而旅客也能一窺車站內部複雜的設計及月台上的火車群。

中站內部的木造結構創造出一種溫暖及歡迎的感覺,長達250公尺的大型透明月台屋頂覆蓋了進站的軌道,並引進大量的陽光;屋頂不同型式的太陽能板改變了光線的射進角度,也產生出時時變幻的光影。

永續性

為了能創造出永續能源,事務所在屋頂上設計了130,000塊太陽能板,總面積達10,000平方公尺,同時這也創下了在荷蘭當地及歐洲地區最大的太陽能板區。雖然太陽能板占了屋頂近乎一半的面積,這些整合在屋頂的太陽能板卻擁有高透明率依舊能引進大量的陽光。這些太陽能板不僅減低了車站內8%的CO2排放量,同時能產生每年320兆瓦特的電力,等於是每年100戶家庭的用電量。

【延伸閱讀】

Benthem Crouwel Architects 事務所

http://www.benthemcrouwel.nl/  

更多建築旅遊資訊,請上【建築行腳】專輯

http://www.xinmedia.com/n/featurestory_list.aspx?collectionid=111

更多國外建築脈動請上【國際脈動】

http://solomo.xinmedia.com/archi/news/International

編譯/蘇琨峰 圖文/Benthem Crouwel Architects 

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Profile

蘇琨峰/Andre

一隻喜愛新事物也對舊事物固執的牡羊。台北工專土木工程科、雲林科技大學營建工程結構組畢業,工作後決定離職前往澳洲再度充實自己並一圓留學夢,畢業於墨爾本大學經濟與商業研究所,主修商業與資訊管理。喜歡看建築、旅行探險、攝影、網球、及爵士樂團薩克斯風手。目前為《欣建築/國際脈動》編譯、文字記者、辦理欣建築相關活動及國際領隊。

Rotterdam Central Station / Benthem Crouwel Architects

Rotterdam Centraal Station is one of the most important transport hubs in The Netherlands. With 110,000 passengers a day the public transport terminal has as many travelers as Amsterdam Airport Schiphol. In addition to the European network of the High Speed Train (HST), Rotterdam Centraal is also connected to the light rail system, RandstadRail. With the advent of both the HST and RandstadRail the number of daily travelers at Rotterdam Centraal is expected to increase to approximately 323,000 by 2025.

Rotterdam HST is the first stop in the Netherlands when travelling from the south and is strategically positioned in the middle of Europe, with Schiphol only twenty minutes and Paris a mere two and a half hours away. Hence the new station is not only larger, brighter and more orderly than the former, but also has an international feel; it beautifully complements both the efficiency of the Hispeed stop and the Rotterdam city’s bold ambitions for urban development and renewal. The station matches in all respects the practicality, capacity, comfort and allure, of the central stations of Madrid, Paris, London and Brussels.

Integration in Urban Environment

One of the fundamental challenges of Rotterdam Centraal station was the difference in the urban character of the north and south side of the station. The entrance on the north side has a modest design, appropriate to the character of the neighborhood Provenierswijk and the smaller number of passengers. The entrance gradually connects to the city. In the Provenierswijk the character of the 19th-century Dutch provincial town is strengthened. Large architectural extensions are avoided on this side of the station, the presence of green is ameliorated and the station is transparent.

In contrast, the grand entrance on the city side is clearly the gateway to the high-rise urban center. Here the station derives its new international, metropolitan identity from the hall made of glass and wood. The roof of the hall, fully clad with stainless steel, gives rise to building’s iconic character and points to the heart of the city.

Now Rotterdam Centraal has the appropriate structure and dimensions for the urban landscape; it is in balance with the heights that characterize the metropolis and simultaneously reflects the human scale. The city of Rotterdam is drawn to the new station via the compaction of the small-scale urban texture surrounding the public transport terminal. The entire railway zone becomes one with the city. This finer urban texture with new sightlines and a mixture of living and working will dramatically improve the quality of life and the environment of the station area.

The esplanade in front of the station is a continuous public space. To achieve this simplicity a parking garage for 750 cars and a bicycle shed for 5,200 bicycles are located under the square. The tram station is moved to the east side of the station, so the platforms broaden the square. Bus, tram, taxi and the area for short-term parking are integrated into the existing urban fabric and do not constitute barriers. The red stone of the station floor continues into the forecourt, merging the station with the city. Pedestrian and cycling routes are pleasant and safe and arriving travelers now have dignified entrance to the city, free from traffic.

Interior and Appearance

Incorporation of natural light, the warmth of the sun’s rays and a modern look are important elements in the design. The platform roof on the Proveniersside is transparent. When the train drives into the station, there is an almost tangible feeling of being enshrouded in the station building. Upon entering in the bright high hall through the center side, the traveler gets an overview of the entire complex and a view to the trains that are waiting invitingly along the platforms.

The wood finish on the inside of the hall, combined with the structural wooden beams of the platform roof creates a warm and welcoming ambience, inviting visitors to linger. The largely transparent roof structure which covers all the tracks over a length of 250 meters, flood the platforms with light. The glass plates of the roof vary the level of light transmittance by utilizing different solar cells patterns, which produce an ever-changing and fascinating play of shadows on the platforms.

Routing and Layout

The routing through the station is logical; travelers are guided by a direct view of the trains and by the daylight that penetrates to the traveler’s passage via the voids that extend through the transparent roof platform and down to the stairs. Because of its transparency the widened traveler’s passage, lined with commercial functions, forms a natural part of the station. Escalators, lifts and stairs lead up to the new platforms, which feature inviting and comfortable platform furniture. On the west side of the station there is a footbridge over the tracks for travelers in transit. This footbridge also functions as an escape route in the event of an emergency.

The passenger terminal is a national and international hub that connects train, tram, bus and subway. The public transport terminal is designed for passenger comfort, which is visible in the different zones of the station. It includes commercial spaces, a lounge, restaurants, offices, parking for cars and bicycles. In the spacious concourse the passenger service functions are conveniently arranged. There is travel information, an information point, the Dutch Railways (NS) travelers shop, ticket vending machines and commercial functions. The grand café and the NS-lounge offer spectacular views across the hall and the adjacent tracks. Waiting areas in the hall and the passage are linked to the passenger flows, with areas both for browsing and quick shopping.

Render

The new Rotterdam Centraal Station is a pleasant, open and transparent public transport terminal which functions as an iconic meeting point. Interwoven into the urban network, the station connects the diverse characters of the city and marks the beginning of Rotterdam’s cultural axis. This modern and efficient building offers travelers to and from the port city all the amenities and comfort they could want or need in the present and the future.

Sustainability

Windows with 130,000 solar cells cover 10,000 m2 of the total roof area of 28,000 m2. This is the largest application of solar energy in a station roof in The Netherlands and is also one of the largest rooftop solar projects in Europe. The solar cells are placed on the parts of the roof that get the most sun, taking into account the high buildings around Rotterdam Centraal. The glass panels vary in light transmittance by using different patterns in the solar cells. Where the roof has the greatest efficiency in terms of sunlight, the cell density is the highest. The solar cells that are integrated in the roof have a high degree of transparency, so there is ample light. The solar cells represent an 8% reduction in the station’s CO2 emissions. The cells are expected to generate 320 megawatt per annum, which is enough energy for 100 households.

【More Information】

Benthem Crouwel Architects

http://www.benthemcrouwel.nl/  

More architecture tour information, here you go【Architecture Footprint】

http://www.xinmedia.com/n/featurestory_list.aspx?collectionid=111

More architecture works abroad, here you go 【International】

http://solomo.xinmedia.com/archi/news/International

Photos/Benthem Crouwel Architects  

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Andre Profile

A male Aries, loves learning new things and being nostalgic to old things. Academic background: Bachelor of Construction Engineering Department at National YunTech University, Taiwan and Diploma of Graduate School of Business and Economics at University of Melbourne. With character of a little introvert, addicting to architecture, photography, tennis, Jazz music and saxophone and being the translator of Xin Architecture/ International, reporter, holder of activities and international tour leader.

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