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熱門: 宜居城市 台美 3颱

跨不過無情海:赴歐尋新人生 最終被拒於海外

立報/本報訊 2013.10.09 00:00
策劃、編譯■劉耘

義大利的拉姆培杜薩小島外海3日發生船難,

各界除了關注島上移民中心資源匱乏的情形,

也盼這場災難能成為敲響歐洲國家的一記警鐘。

議員及官員的代表5日表示,西西里島外海3日這起船難的倖存者正生活在極差的環境中並面臨刑事起訴,議員及官員也呼籲改革國內及歐盟的政策。

(上圖)兒童移民在拉姆培杜薩島上的收容中心內玩耍,圖攝於2013年10月5日。(圖文/路透)

惡劣的海象,阻撓了救援人員找尋那些卡在沉船內的遺體,而這場船難中,估計有3百名來自厄利垂亞及索馬利亞、原本打算到歐洲尋求更好人生的男女老少喪命。

救難小組估計,失事地點四周將再尋獲超過1百具遺體,而船隻就沉沒在距離南部拉姆培杜薩島岸邊不到1公里、深度47公尺的大海中。

如今,這起歐洲移民危機裡數一數二慘烈的災難中,倖存者的處境讓大眾的焦點轉到移民收容中心的缺失,以及那些欲將他們阻擋在外的法律。

收容中心環境不佳

「我們有義務告訴義大利政府及歐盟,他們的機構和政策不僅僅是不適當而已,而已經是犯罪行為。」西西里島區長克羅切達、市長以及一群議員在參訪了拉姆培杜薩島的移民中心後,克羅切達這麼說道。

這個中心原本僅規劃收容250人,如今卻擠進超過1千人。

收容中心不開放記者及電視攝影機進入,但透過中心前門可清楚看到,許多帶著孩童的家庭在樹蔭下搭營,他們以泡棉墊為床,衣物則晾在懸吊於樹幹間的繩子上。

▲一位移民在拉姆培杜薩島上的收容中心內休息,圖攝於2013年10月4日。(圖文/路透)

「中心內過度擁擠、很不人道,」公民選擇運動黨的議員席洛說:「超過1百位女性共用1間廁所,也沒有肥皂能清洗她們的衣物。」

議員表示,他們與數名這起船難中倖存者談話,得知每位移民都付了數千美元費用給人口販子,才得以先穿越撒哈拉沙漠、再跨越地中海。

離開家鄉非易事

拉姆培杜薩島這座以漁業及觀光為主的小島,僅距離突尼西亞70英里(約113公里)、離利比亞170英里(約274公里),而這座島過去幾年來都承受著移民危機的衝擊,數萬名移民乘坐殘破且危險的船隻到達這裡。

穿著短褲和紅上衣的16歲索馬利亞男孩阿布杜說,他的父親總共付了7,500美元(約新台幣22萬元)給人口販子,好讓他來到拉姆培杜薩島;他12天前乘船到達這,那時他已離開索馬利亞首都摩加迪休約6個月。

人口販運生意的利潤相當高,因為各國皆制訂了嚴格的法律,要阻擋不受歡迎的移民進入較富有的國家。

阿布杜的父親付了1,300美元(約新台幣3萬8千元)讓他跨越撒哈拉沙漠、300美元(約新台幣8,811元)以逃出利比亞監獄、每搭一趟船更要花費800美元(約新台幣2萬3千元),而他總共付了4次搭船費,因為他曾3度被利比亞警方遣返,他說警方甚至朝他開槍。

「我想讀書。我想擁有未來。」他在移民中心大門的欄杆後說道。

移民急需除罪化

義大利西西里島阿格里虔多的檢察官馮左說,這些船難的生還者若無法獲得政治庇護,很可能被起訴、處以5千歐元(約新台幣20萬元)罰金並遣返回國。

「過去還會將他們定罪,但想當然的,他們付不出罰金。他們身無分文。」馮左說。

「這顯示出,義大利議會接下來必須做的事情之一,就是廢除那些讓移民變成犯罪的措施。」公民選擇運動黨的議員馬哈茲提表示。

這場災難使義大利再次面臨壓力,要求歐盟提供更多協助以對抗這場持續數10年的地中海移民危機。

義大利總理雷塔所屬的中間偏左派民主黨呼籲,應緊急召開一場歐洲議會會議,以就設立特殊「人道途徑」達成共識,保護移民所搭乘的船隻。(路透)

The survivors of a shipwreck(1) off Sicily two days ago live in terrible conditions and face criminal prosecution, a delegation of lawmakers and officials said on Saturday as they called for policy changes at home and in the European Union.

Rough seas blocked efforts to recover the bodies trapped inside a boat that sank on Thursday, killing an estimated 300 Eritrean and Somali men, women and children who were seeking a better life in Europe.

Rescue teams expect to find more than 100 others in and around the wreck, submerged in 47 metres of water less than a kilometre from the shore of the southern island of Lampedusa.

Now the plight of the survivors of one of the worst disasters in Europe's immigration crisis is putting a spotlight on the shortcomings of the migrant centres, and on the laws that are aimed at keeping them away.

"We have the duty to tell the Italian government and the EU that their structures and policies are not only inadequate, but they're criminal," said Rosario Crocetta, Sicily's regional governor, after visiting Lampedusa's immigration centre with the mayor and a group of lawmakers.

The centre, which is equipped to house 250 people, is now packed with more than 1,000.

Reporters and TV cameras are kept out, but clearly seen through the front gate were families with children camping under shade trees, with foam mattresses for beds and clothing drying on lines stretched between the trunks.

"The overcrowding is inhuman," said Gea Planeta Schiro, with the Civic Choice party. "More than 100 woman are using one bathroom, and they have no soap to wash their clothes."

The lawmakers said they spoke to a group of the survivors of Thursday's shipwreck, and were told that each migrant paid thousands of dollars to smugglers(2) first to cross the Sahara desert, and then to buy passage across the Mediterranean.

Lampedusa, a tiny fishing and tourist island that is only about 70 miles from Tunisia and 170 miles from Libya, has borne the brunt(3) of a crisis which over the years has seen tens of thousands of migrants arrive in rickety(4) and unsafe vessels.

Abdul, a 16-year-old Somali boy wearing shorts and a red T-shirt, said his father paid a total of $7,500 to smugglers to get him to Lampedusa, where he arrived on a boat 12 days ago - about six months after leaving Mogadishu.

Human trafficking is a lucrative business because of the strict laws aimed at keeping unwanted immigrants out of more wealthy countries.

Abdul's father paid $1,300 to get him across the Sahara, $300 to get him out of a Libyan prison, $800 for each boat crossing, of which he bought four because he was turned back three times by Libyan police, who shot at him, he said.

"I want to study. I want a future," he said through the bars of the immigration centre gate.

The survivors of the shipwreck could be prosecuted, fined 5,000 euros and sent home if they are not given political asylum(5), Agrigento prosecutor Ignazio Fonzo said.

"There have been some convictions in the past, and of course they can't pay the fine. They don't have any money," he said.

"This shows that one of next things that Italy's parliament must do is abolish the measure that makes immigration a crime," Mario Marazzitti, a lawmaker for the Civic Choice party said.

The disaster has renewed pressure from Italy for more help from the EU to combat the decades-old migrant crisis in the Mediterranean.

Prime Minister Enrico Letta's centre-left Democratic Party called for an urgent meeting of the European Council to agree on setting up special "humanitarian corridors" to provide protection for migrant boats.(Reuters)

關鍵字詞

1.shipwreck(n.)船難

2.smuggler(n)走私者

3.brunt(n.)衝擊

4.rickety(a.)搖晃不穩的

5.asylum (n.)庇護

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