回到頂端
|||
熱門: 蔡阿嘎 韓失業率 小嫻

移民改革向前衝:改革迫在眉睫 行政立法意見分歧

立報/本報訊 2013.02.06 00:00
策劃、編譯■李威撰歐巴馬與參議院聯手推動移民改革,規模之大,堪稱近30年來之最,但參院所提方案,與歐巴馬的想法有出入,尤其是邊境管制的部分。移民改革幾乎成為兩黨共識,為何出現路線的分歧?非法移民取得公民身分,對美國又有何利弊?第2任任期剛過1週,美國總統歐巴馬1月29日就展開移民改革,推促國會盡快尋找管道,讓美國1,100萬名無證移民取得公民身分。然而當歐巴馬在拉斯維加斯演說,讚許兩黨移民計畫的同時,白宮與共和黨人之間出現裂隙,凸顯解決這項敏感議題所遭遇到的困難。移民問題懸宕多年,突然露出改革曙光,即使共和黨人,也似乎願意接受大幅度的改革。共和黨在去年11月的總統大選,遭拉丁裔選民用選票制裁。在歐巴馬第1任任期,經濟議題與健保改革受到較多關注,移民問題淪為次要。但歐巴馬在第2任就職演說中,揚言要推動滿懷雄心壯志的自由派改革議程,移民改革即其中一部分,其他還包括槍枝管控、同志權益及對抗氣候變遷。參院版:先搞定邊境管制但在華盛頓,歐巴馬的想法,立刻與參院兩黨組成的「八人幫」所提的方案發生齟齬。參院方案著重於邊境管制。有別於將邊境安全列為優先考量,歐巴馬傾向於只要無證移民通過國家安全及犯罪背景調查、付清罰款並學習英文,就讓他們步上獲取公民身分的途徑。「八人幫」構想的方案,則是先就美墨邊境的安全問題採取對策,再談非法移民取得合法身分所須之步驟。■美國員警在亞利桑那州巡邏邊境圍籬,圖攝於2011年9月7日。(圖文/路透)這一差異,足以引起共和黨議員的關注。共和黨議員希望制定的,是能夠在以共和黨為首的眾院獲得通過的法案包裹。移民改革也許會成為歐巴馬第2任任期的重要立法成就,但白宮對這一壁壘分明的議題顯得戰戰兢兢,心知若要成事,就必須謹慎權衡取捨。上一次的重大移民改革,是2007年由共和黨總統布希所提出,但最後在國會敗下陣來。歐巴馬第1任任期不願做出大幅度改革移民政策的承諾,擔心會步上2007年的後塵。共和黨搶攻西裔選票選輸歐巴馬的共和黨人,看見自己提名的總統候選人羅姆尼只獲得27%的西裔選票,開始深信若想博得更多西裔選民支持,就必須要有所行動。改變選民的態度跟想法,將是一緩慢的進程。現年22歲、在鳳凰城的社區大學念書的葛雷洛表示:「我還是不曉得幹嘛要投票支持(共和黨人),但他們確實開始討論一些我們想聽見的東西。」葛雷洛原本住在墨西哥的莫瑞洛斯,5歲時被抱來美國。除了要應付共和黨的要求,歐巴馬也需要關注黨內左翼訴求,工會對臨時勞工計畫感到憂心。美國民權聯盟警告,他們反對提出讓就業認證制度變嚴苛、讓勞工權益受到侵犯的法案。就業認證制度決定在美勞工是否合法。美國民權聯盟的執行長羅梅羅表示:「參院的法案內容,提供無數渴望成為公民的人獲得合法身分,而這些人本來就應該在沒有恐懼的情況下生活、工作、持家。其他諸如強制性電子驗證系統、繼續在邊境投入浪費且不必要的花費,則引發深切的民權擔憂。」(路透)Just over a week into his second term, President Barack Obama took his fight for immigration reform on Tuesday and pushed Congress to quickly find a path to citizenship (1) for 11 million undocumented residents.But as Obama praised a bipartisan (2) immigration plan during a speech in Las Vegas, disagreement emerged between the White House and Republicans that underscored the difficulty of resolving an emotive issue.After years on the back burner, immigration reform has suddenly looked possible as Republicans, chastened by Latino voters who rejected them in the November election, appear more willing to accept a thorough overhaul.Action on immigration was sidelined (3) by economic issues and healthcare reform during Obama's first term but it is part of an ambitious liberal agenda the Democratic president laid out last week in his second inaugural address. That agenda also includes gun control, gay rights and fighting climate change.In Washington, however, differences quickly emerged between what Obama would like and the proposals by the bipartisan "Gang of Eight" senators, whose plan is heavy on border security.Rather than emphasize border security first, Obama would let undocumented (4) immigrants get on a path to citizenship if they first undergo national security and criminal background checks, pay penalties and learn English.The Gang of Eight plan envisions first taking steps to toughen security along the U.S.-Mexican border before setting in motion the steps illegal immigrants must take to gain legal status.That difference was enough to raise concerns among Republican lawmakers who are trying to frame a package that can pass the Republican-led House of Representatives.Immigration reform could give Obama a landmark second-term legislative achievement, but the White House is mindful that success on such a divisive (5) issue will require a delicate balancing act.The last major attempt at an immigration overhaul was done by Republican President George W. Bush in 2007. It collapsed in Congress. Obama did not follow through with a promise to seek an overhaul in his first term, fearing a repeat of the earlier debacle.Republicans who saw their presidential nominee, Mitt Romney, receive only 27 percent of the Hispanic vote in the election loss to Obama are adamant that steps must be taken to draw more Hispanics to their party's ranks.This could be a slow process to change hearts and minds. "I don't know about voting for them (the Republicans) yet but they definitely are starting to talk about things we want to hear," said Maxima Guerrero, 22, a community college student in Phoenix. Originally from Morelos, Mexico, she was brought to the United States at age five.In addition to dealing with Republican demands, Obama needs to watch his left flank, where unions worry about temporary workers' programs.And the American Civil Liberties Union warned against an erosion of rights under plans to tighten the employment verification system that determines whether a worker is in the United States legally."While there are components of the Senate plan that provide millions of aspiring citizens the legal status they deserve to live, work, and raise their families free of fear, others, such as mandating E-Verify and continued wasteful and unnecessary spending on the border, raise serious civil liberties concerns," said Anthony D. Romero, ACLU executive director.(Reuters)關鍵字詞1.citizenship(n.)公民身分2.bipartisan(a.)兩黨的3.undocumented(a.)無正式文件的4.sideline(v.)排擠至一旁5.divisive(a.)分裂的

社群留言