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南非血礦石:衝突引爆槍響 凸顯底層黑人處境

立報/本報訊 2012.08.29 00:00
策劃、編譯■李威撰白金礦藏為南非許下繁榮願景,如今在馬索希看來,卻淪為一堆殘破的夢想。在艾弗瑞斯特礦場工作的馬索西,是2千名被阿奎里爾斯白金公司解雇的勞工之一。South Africa's platinum(1)promise of prosperity has turned into a heap of broken dreams for Vusimuzi Mathosi, one of 2,000 workers laid off by Aquarius Platinum at its Everest Mine.馬索希所居住的破敗小鎮,就位於約翰尼斯堡東方3百公里處的利登堡郊區,他在一間被他跟家人稱為家的單房住屋附近向《路透》表示:「這地方只能靠白金才撐得下去,現在我們能怎麼辦呢?」"This place can only be sustained with platinum. What can we do now?," he told Reuters near the one-room box he and his family call home in a dilapidated township on the outskirts of Lydenburg, 300 km (180 miles) east of Johannesburg.工會搶人 警方開槍釀死傷馬索希隸屬「建築與礦工協會」(以下簡稱AMCU),該工會與人數占優勢的「全國礦工工會」(以下簡稱NUM)因爭奪會員而發生流血衝突,而這正是馬瑞康納礦區8月16日34名白金礦工被警察槍殺的事件背景。He belongs to the Association of Mineworkers and Construction Union (AMCU), whose bloody turf war for members with the dominant National Union of Mineworkers (NUM) was the backdrop to Thursday's(16日) killing of 34 striking platinum miners by police at the Marikana mine.警方取締隆明公司的抗議礦工,已導致超過40人喪生,南非國家對這起種族隔離結束後死傷最嚴重的一次警方行動而鬧得滿城風雨。The crackdown against the protesting miners at Lonmin Plc has left more than 40 dead and a nation seething over the deadliest police action in post-apartheid(2) history.這起事件也凸顯了南非最根深蒂固的難題:長期性失業、底層社會的黑人持續增加(通常是沒有受過教育或收入過低)。種族隔離結束至今已將近20年,然而黑人似乎只享受到微薄的好處。It also puts focus on South Africa's most stubborn problems: chronic unemployment and a growing black underclass - often uneducated and underpaid - that has seen few benefits from the end of apartheid nearly two decades ago.在總統朱瑪的治理下,由於執政黨「非洲民族議會」(以下簡稱ANC)忽視普遍的不公現象、讓那些與他們政治關係良好的人士富裕起來,因而持續遭受到批評。Under president Jacob Zuma, the ruling African National Congress has increasingly drawn criticism for ignoring widespread inequality in favor of enriching the politically connected.馬瑞康納白金礦場附近,礦工群聚在被他們稱為「恐怖之丘」的土堆上,圖攝於23日。(圖文/路透)政黨與工會關係密切執政黨ANC與全國總工會有政治結盟關係,而NUM就隸屬於全國總工會。由於工會高層與公司及ANC一丘之貉,因此在礦井工作的一般工會成員感受到不公平待遇。The country's ruling African National Congress is in a governing alliance with the NUM-affiliated national union confederation COSATU, and a perception has filtered down the shafts that the rank and file(3) are not getting a fair deal because NUM is in bed with companies and the ANC.AMCU在利登堡的分會副主席貝恩谷表示:「NUM他們持有公司的股票。」NUM則否認他們持有開採公司的股份,也否認跟公司管理階層有太過親密的互動關係。"The NUM, they have shares in the companies," said Fannie Bhengu, an AMCU branch chairman in Lydenburg. The NUM denied it had shares in mining companies, or that it had too cosy a relationship with the management of those companies.過去NUM的領導者,現在成了執政黨ANC裡的達官顯要,而業界鉅子拉瑪佛沙,目前則是隆明公司的董事會成員。拉瑪佛沙25年前還是勞工時,曾領導過一次罷工,那場罷工有11名礦工遭警方槍擊。Past NUM leaders who are ANC heavyweights(4) include Cyril Ramaphosa, a business tycoon who sits on Lonmin's board. In his labor days, he led a strike 25 years ago that saw 11 mineworkers gunned down by police.然而,AMCU與其他後來成立的工會持續累積不滿,除了搶奪NUM的成員,也吸收那些沒有加入工會的礦工,這些礦工替隆明公司、阿奎里爾斯公司及英帕拉白金公司工作。英帕拉白金公司經營全球最大的白金礦場,今年年初才因為爆發勞工流血事件而關閉礦場6個星期。AMCU and other upstart unions have however been drilling into a growing seam of discontent and poaching NUM members or picking up the unorganized at Lonmin, Aquarius and at the world's largest platinum mine run by Impala Platinum, which shut for 6 weeks early this year amid labor blood-letting.反對NUM的抗議浪潮,也引發了不滿政府施政服務的民怨,換句話說矛頭指向了執政黨ANC。在貧困市鎮與棚屋區,經常可見這些暴動的發生。The groundswell of revolt against the NUM is tapping into the same popular anger with poor government delivery of services that is confronting the ANC, marked by frequent riots in poor townships and squatter camps.礦業顧問公司優樂米的常務董事白薩克表示:「與ANC關係緊密、一向占有主導優勢NUM遭受到挑戰並非是出於偶然,而是發生在不滿政府施政而出現愈來愈多草根性對抗的這個脈絡當中。」"It is not incidental that the challenge to the historically dominant union NUM, affiliated with the ANC, is taking place within a context of growing grass-root contestation to the performance of government," said Claude Baissac, managing director of mining consultancy Eunomix.收入不均愈趨嚴重南非1年的人均國內生產總值超過8千美元,但將近4成人口每天生活費不到3美元。根據世界銀行的基尼係數資料,目前南非收入分配不均的問題,比1994年種族隔離結束時來得嚴重。Per capita GDP is over $8,000 a year but nearly 40 percent of the population lives on less than $3 a day. Income distribution in South Africa today is even more unequal than at the end of apartheid in 1994, according to the World Bank's Gini index.南非的基尼係數(衡量收入不均的工具)為0.69,是全球數據最高的國家之一,這點也得到全國規劃委員會主席曼紐爾的證實。當時曼紐爾正揭曉一項刺激經濟成長的方案,希望未來20年之內,能創造1,100萬個工作機會,並增加2倍以上的人均收入。The country's Gini co-efficient, a measure of income inequality, is one of the highest in the world at 0.69, Planning Minister Trevor Manuel conceded, when he unveiled a growth plan whose ambitious targets include creating 11 million jobs over two decades and more than doubling per capita income.包括總統朱瑪在內,南非從上到下的政策制定者,經常都拿歐元區危機等外在因素,作為解釋為何這個非洲最大經濟體無法快速成長或創造更多工作機會的理由。South African policy makers from President Jacob Zuma down routinely reach for external factors such as the euro zone crisis to explain why Africa's biggest economy cannot grow faster or create more jobs.南非儲備銀行總裁馬卡斯最近一次發表有關貨幣政策的言論中,再次覆述了她那令人耳熟能詳的理由,即歐元區的「負面溢出效應」對南非經濟造成影響,這一衝擊不僅可能會持續下去,而且還會加深。In her latest monetary policy statement, Reserve Bank Governor Gill Marcus reiterates her by now familiar argument that "negative spillover effects" from the euro zone crisis on the South African economy are likely to persist and intensify.執政黨未善待黑人歐洲吸收南非約25%的出口,沒有人會否認歐元區的混亂對非洲這個最有力的經濟體造成負面衝擊。但馬瑞康納礦區造成44人遇難的血腥衝突,揭露勞工與社會動亂的深層暗流,促使他們更近距離去注視國家問題根源所在。With Europe absorbing about 25 percent of South African exports, no one is denying that the euro zone meltdown has taken a toll on the most powerful economy in Africa. But the bloody confrontation at the Marikana platinum mine, which killed 44 people and uncovered deep undercurrents of labour and social unrest, is forcing them to look closer to home for the sources of the nation's problems.馬瑞康納礦區的屠殺,將刺眼的聚光燈照映在南非收入不均及社會不公的問題,因為這背離了執政黨ANC在1994年種族隔離結束之後要創造「更好的生活給所有人」的承諾。The Marikana mine carnage also shines a harsh spotlight on South Africa's glaring income disparities(5) and social inequalities, which fly in the face of the ruling African National Congress' promise to create a "better life for all" after the end of apartheid in 1994.愈來愈多人察覺到,政府飽受爭議的「黑人振興」運動,只是讓一小部分菁英及與ANC有關的人士獲得好處。漸趨不滿的黑人民眾,經常發動暴力抗議,表達對持續貧窮及糟糕基礎施政服務的不滿。Amid a growing perception that a much-debated government "black empowerment" drive has benefited only an elite and ANC-connected few, an increasingly restive black population has stepped up often violent protests against enduring poverty and poor basic services.(Reuters路透)關鍵字詞1. platinum (n.) 白金2. apartheid (n.) 南非種族隔離政策3. rank and file (n.) 組織裡的一般成員4. heavyweight (n.) 要員、重要人士5. disparity (n.) 不平等、不公平