非法正義:美推新制 暫緩驅逐青年非法移民

立報/李威撰 2012.08.22 00:00
策劃、編譯■李威撰歐巴馬政府放寬遞解出境的規定15日生效,來自尼加拉瓜的19歲無證移民莫拉茲等不及跑去登記留在美國的臨時合法身分。Marlon Morraz, 19, an undocumented immigrant from Nicaragua, wasted no time to sign up for temporary legal status in the United States under the Obama administration's relaxed deportation (1) rules that took effect on Wednesday.莫拉茲說:「現在是我的機會。」他前往邁阿密眾議員主持的一家移民工作坊,在那裡填完申請表格後說道:「好開心,現在我看見了未來。」"Now is my chance," he said after picking up an application form at an immigration workshop hosted by a Miami congressman. "I'm pretty elated. Now I have a future."自從11歲來到美國後,莫拉茲一直過著低調生活,他是美國成千上萬名期待按新規定向國土安全部提出申請的無照移民之一。Morraz, who has been living under the radar since he came to the country when he was 11, is among hundreds of thousands of undocumented (2) immigrants expected to file applications with the Department of Homeland Security under the new rules.兩年內毋須擔心被驅逐只要抵達美國的年紀未滿16歲、自2007年6月15日起就住在美國、未犯重罪且年齡未逾30歲者,「童年抵達者暫緩驅逐辦法」將允許他們至少2年內不會被驅逐出境。The "deferred action for childhood arrivals" permits shield them from deportation for at least two years as long as they were younger than 16 when they came to the United States, have lived in the country since June 15, 2007, have not been convicted of a felony (3), and are not older than 30.15日(開放登記的頭一天)在加州及德州等移民人口眾多的州,許多滿心期待且年輕的無證學生在移民辦公室外排隊。Lines of eager, young undocumented students formed outside immigration offices in states with big immigrant populations such as California and Texas on Wednesday.皮尤拉丁裔中心指出,有多達170萬人有資格申請這項暫時方案,這項方案將准許他們申請工作許可、社會安全卡及駕照。As many as 1.7 million people could qualify for the temporary program, which enables them to apply for work permits, Social Security cards and driver's licenses, according to the Pew Hispanic Center.歐巴馬政府積極驅逐有犯罪紀錄的非法移民,他在6月宣布將協助年輕非法移民(其中多為西語裔),這群人不斷表示需要協助。President Barack Obama, whose administration has aggressively deported illegal immigrants with criminal backgrounds, announced in June that he was moving to help this group of youths - many of them Hispanic - who have become increasingly vocal in calling for help.共和黨批評:修法是選舉考量此舉引發眾多共和黨人的強烈譴責,認為這是民主黨總統為了11月6日的總統選舉而爭取西裔選票的動作,將眼光瞄準在佛羅里達、內華達、科羅拉多等擁有眾多移民人口的戰場州(按:又稱「搖擺州」,即候選人都沒有把握贏得多數票的州)。Many Republicans blasted the move as the Democratic president's grab for Hispanic votes ahead of the November 6 presidential election, with an eye on battleground states such as Florida, Nevada and Colorado with big immigrant populations.莫拉茲去年高中畢業,修有高級課程學分,但他拒絕了波士頓學院與芝加哥大學的就讀機會,因為他不具備申請財務援助的身分資格。Morraz, who graduated from high school last year with advanced credits, had to turn down university opportunities at Boston College and the University of Chicago, because his lack of status made him ineligible (4) for financial assistance.「我開始不去在意受教育這檔事,我想這是在浪費時間,只是讓腦袋填滿終歸徒勞的夢想。」"I started to stop caring about education. I thought it was a waste of time, it just fills your head with dreams for nothing," he said.現在莫拉茲註冊就讀一間社區學院,念的是國際關係,他重新燃起大學夢,希望有朝一日能成為外交官。他說:「現在我看到了未來,我就走在這條路上。」Now he has enrolled at a community college to study international relations, and has revived his university dreams with hopes one day of becoming a diplomat. "Now I have a future. I'm on a path," he said.▲餵兒子史蒂芬吃飯的非法移民薇琪(Vicky)來自薩爾瓦多,她暫時避居在墨西哥市的郊區,準備借道墨西哥前往美國,圖攝於2012年8月7日。(圖文/路透)拉丁裔的領袖們欣然接受這項聯邦政策的轉變;但部分共和黨員卻譏笑這是「後門大赦」。The federal policy change has been warmly received by Latino leaders, but has been derided by some Republicans as "backdoor amnesty."移民倡議者也不是全然滿意,他們稱該政策只實施一部分的《夢想法案》,這項還卡在國會的法案,讓非法進入美國的無證移民孩童獲得永久的法律地位。Immigration advocates are not entirely satisfied either, calling the policy just a partial implementation of the Dream Act, a bill stalled in the U.S. Congress that seeks to create a permanent legal status for the undocumented children of immigrants who entered the country illegally.「這就好像OK繃。」出生哥倫比亞、4歲來到邁阿密,如今已18歲的學生丹妮拉.帕勒茲說:「這只是暫時的,我們不知道2年之後會變成怎樣。」"It's like a Band-Aid," said Daniela Pelaez, 18, a Colombian-born student who came to Miami at age 4. "It's only temporary and we don't know what happens in two years time."帕勒茲跟姊姊2月收到30天內離境的命令,但帕勒茲被選為畢業典禮上台致詞的學生代表後,引領了一場希望能留在美國的公共論戰。Pelaez and her sister received a 30-day deportation order in February and led a public battle to stay in the country after Daniela was elected to deliver her high school's valedictorian commencement speech.帕勒茲獲得達特茅斯學院的全額獎學金,準備前去攻讀分子生物學。她在3月打贏另一項要求延後驅逐出境的上訴,刺激更多民眾向歐巴馬政府要求採取更廣泛補償辦法。帕勒茲希望能成為一名心臟外科醫師。Pelaez was awarded a full scholarship to Dartmouth to study molecular biology and won a separate appeal for deferred (5) action in March, spurring calls for the Obama administration to apply the remedy more broadly. She hopes to become a heart surgeon.佛羅里達州選出的共和黨眾議員李維拉表示:「所有這些孩子都有能力成為傑出的美國人,問題只在於我們是否給他們機會。」李維拉15日也主持了工作訪,提供建議給那些計畫申請人。"All these children have the ability to be great Americans. The only question is whether we give them that opportunity," said U.S. Representative David Rivera, a Florida Republican who hosted Wednesday's workshop to advise applicants for the program.談到對歐巴馬行政命令的批評時,「我不大在乎如何達成的技術問題」,他補充說道:「我比較關心的是這會是邁向永久辦法的一個基礎。」"I'm not so concerned about the mechanics of how this was done," he added, referring to criticism of president Obama's executive order, "as much as I am about it's being a foundation for a permanent solution."專家:申請前先檢查倡議人士敦促年輕移民在提出申請前,先讓律師檢查過自己的申請案。「錯誤或誤解可能導致暫緩遞解的申請被駁回,損失465(美)元的費用,更糟的情況則是被驅逐出境。」移民正義美國人的主任利托表示:「這是馬拉松,不是衝刺。」Advocates are urging young immigrants to have their applications reviewed by an attorney before filing them. "Mistakes or misunderstandings could lead to denial of deferred action and losing the $465 fee or worse - deportation," said Cheryl Little, director of Americans for Immigrant Justice. "This is a marathon, not a sprint."來自德州聖安東尼奧的27歲維里茲,希望能借助於這項方案。出生於墨西哥的維里茲,在8歲跟著同為非法移民的父母來到美國。從那時候起,她完成了高中及大學學業,但沒有辦法取得駕照或旅行。她說:「這讓我能夠去做那些我一直很想做的事,並活出就像我一直在追求的美國夢。」San Antonio, Texas, resident Benita Veliz, 27, hoped to take advantage of the program. She arrived in the United States from her native Mexico with her illegal immigrant parents when she was 8. Since then, she said she has completed high school and college but has been unable to get a driver's license or travel. "This will allow me to do the things I've always wanted to do and live out the American dream like I've always wanted," she said.(Reuters路透)關鍵字詞1. deportation (n.) 驅逐出境2. undocumented (a.) 無證件的3. felony (n.) 重罪4. ineligible (a.) 不符資格的5. deferred (a.) 延期的