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開棺才論定:阿拉法特遭暗殺? 巴勒斯坦決議驗屍

立報/本報訊 2012.07.11 00:00
策劃、編譯■李威撰、謝雯伃日前傳出質疑,認為前巴勒斯坦領導人是遭放射性物質釙毒害致死,迫使巴勒斯坦自治政府4日同意開棺檢驗這名偶像領導人的屍體。New suspicions that Yasser Arafat was murdered, perhaps poisoned by radioactive polonium(1), prompted the Palestinian Authority on Wednesday to agree to exhume the body of the iconic leader.許多阿拉伯人認為,2004年75歲的阿拉法特令人費解地因病而死,以色列是幕後最大嫌疑者,但以色列試圖與阿拉法特之死畫清界線。這名已故領導人,歷經多年戰爭及和平,希望帶領巴勒斯坦人建立國家。Israel, seen by many Arabs as the prime suspect behind the mysterious illness that killed the 75-year-old Arafat in 2004, sought to distance itself anew from the death of the man who led Palestinians' bid for a state through years of war and peace.衣物驗出放射性物質瑞士一間研究機構檢驗阿拉法特遺孀蘇胡提供的衣物,錄製卡達《半島電視台》製作的紀錄片。該機構的放射防護專家發現,衣物殘留「驚人」數量的放射性物質釙210,與2006年殺害俄羅斯前間諜的物質相同。但該機構指出,阿拉法特醫療報告中所陳述的症狀,與他們的報告不符。A Swiss institute which examined clothing provided by Arafat's widow Suha for a documentary by Qatar-based Al Jazeera television said its radiation protection experts had found "surprisingly" high levels of polonium-210, the same substance found to have killed a former Russian spy in London in 2006. But it said symptoms described in the president's medical reports were not consistent with the radioactive agent.48歲的蘇胡.阿拉法特向《半島電視台》表示:「我希望全世界知道阿拉法特被暗殺的真相。」她沒有明確指控誰是兇手,但卻表明以色列和美國視阿拉法特為和平的阻礙。"I want the world to know the truth about the assassination of Yasser Arafat," Suha Arafat, 48, told Al Jazeera, without making any direct accusations, but noting that both Israel and the United States saw him as an obstacle to peace.使用卑劣手段的行徑、以及巴勒斯坦人牽涉其中的說法,長期存在於巴勒斯坦的內部派系鬥爭。最新這起情事,也呼應了阿拉法特的法塔運動(目前由他的繼任者阿巴斯所領導)內部,以及法塔與哈瑪斯之間的新一波緊張關係。Allegations of foul play - and of Palestinian involvement in it - have long marked factional fighting among Palestinians. The latest revelation coincides with renewed tensions within Arafat's Fatah movement, now headed by his successor President Mahmoud Abbas, and between Fatah and Hamas.阿巴斯的自治政府表示,同意蘇胡.阿拉法特的要求,願將其丈夫的遺體從西岸城市雷馬拉蓋在阿拉法特總部旁的大理石陵墓中挖出驗屍,但日期尚未明確。Abbas's administration said it would approve Suha Arafat's request to bring her husband's remains out for autopsy (2) from a limestone mausoleum built next to his headquarters in the West Bank city of Ramallah, without giving a date for such a move.阿巴斯發言人拉迪奈表示:「自治政府一如以往,已準備好要完全合作,共同配合調查,找出造成前主席殉難的真正原因。」"The Authority, as it always has been, is ready to completely cooperate with and clear the way for an investigation into the true causes leading to the martyrdom of the late president," said Nabil Abu Rdeineh, spokesman for Abbas.巴勒斯坦解放組織資深成員埃拉卡向《路透》表示,一旦「宗教及家族程序完成」,驗屍就可以馬上進行。Saeb Erekat, a senior member of the Palestine Liberation Organisation (PLO), told Reuters the exhumation (3) could take place as soon as "religious and family procedures" were complete.「如果你問我,這幾天內就可完成,不會超過幾天。」他表示:「接著我們就會和原先的瑞士團隊,或是願意前往此地進行檢驗的其他團隊聯繫。」"If you ask me, it's a matter of a days, not more than a few days," he said. "Then we will be in contact with the Swiss team or any other team that could come and exhume the body."法國醫生:死因不明巴勒斯坦發生暴動之後,阿拉法特被以色列困在雷馬拉的西岸總部,時間長達3年,身體微恙的阿拉法特在2004年10月倒下。Confined by Israel to his West Bank headquarters in Ramallah for three years after a Palestinian uprising erupted, an ailing Arafat collapsed in October 2004.接下來2週,來自突尼西亞、埃及和約旦的外國醫生蜂擁至他的病榻前,診斷他只是得到感冒而已。Foreign doctors flocked to his bedside from Tunisia, Egypt and Jordan over the next two weeks that he was suffering from no more than the flu.但阿拉法特變得既憔悴又瘦弱,還向身旁助手表示:「真主旨意,我要回去了。」他被專機送往法國一間軍醫院,在那裡陷入昏迷,於2004年11月11日過世。But looking weak and thin - and telling aides "God willing, I will be back" - he was airlifted to a military hospital in France, where he slipped into a coma (4) and died on Nov. 11, 2004.當時流傳許多有關他的死因,包括胃癌、中毒到愛滋病的傳聞都有。曾在阿拉法特最後一段時光治療他的法國醫生表示,他們找不出死因。法國官員則援引隱私法,拒絕提供疾病的相關細節。At the time, rumours flew that he had died from anything from stomach cancer to poisoning to AIDS. French doctors who treated Arafat in his final days said they could not establish the cause of death. French officials, citing privacy laws, refused to give details of the nature of his illness.以色列否認與其有關以色列方否認與阿拉法特之死有關,當時擔任以色列國家安全局局長的迪希特在4日在以色列的軍事廣播電台上表示,調查權在巴勒斯坦人手上:「屍體在他們手上、屍體在拉馬拉,所有的關鍵都在他們手上」。Israel denied involvement in Arafat's death and the head of its Shin Bet intelligence(5) service at the time, Avi Dichter, said on Wednesday it was for Palestinians to investigate: "The body is in their hands. It is in Ramallah, and really, all the keys are in their hands," he told Israel's Army Radio.以色列軍事廣播電台表示,透過食物是唯一能夠利用釙來謀殺他人的方式,該電台訪問迪希特,是否阿拉法特真是釙中毒而死,該單位主掌監控巴勒斯坦人的所有任務。他大笑著回答:「你問我?難道我是他的廚師嗎?」Israeli Army Radio said introducing polonium into food was the only way to kill someone with the poison and asked Dichter, whose agency had overall responsibility for monitoring the Palestinians, whether it would have been possible with Arafat. "You're asking me as his cook?" he answered, laughing.他繼續說道:「不,我們關注的是更重要的議題,我們對阿拉法特的食物不感興趣。我想他身邊的人才有興趣,因為他們希望他身體好起來,那時大家都知道他身體很不好。但是國家安全局或以色列,沒有涉入阿拉法特的食物。」He continued: "No, we were focused on more serious things. Arafat's food did not interest us. I think it interested those around him, in order, really, to keep his health up, as he was indeed known to be unwell. But the Shin Bet, or the State of Israel, were not involved in Yasser Arafat's food."迪希特表示:「阿拉法特有許多敵人,在國內和國外都是。讓他們去調查……巴勒斯坦人知道怎麼在自家裡面調查,讓他們去調查並找出真相。」Dichter said: "Yasser Arafat had many enemies, domestically, abroad. But let them investigate ... The Palestinians know well how to investigate what goes on in their house. Let them investigate and find out."哈瑪斯官員巴達維要求調查,認為巴勒斯坦可能有人協助以色列進行謀殺,他稱他們的「罪惡雙手協助並幫忙占領者的任務,讓這些有毒物進入阿拉法特體內」。A Hamas official, Salah Al-Bardaweel, called for an investigation, suggesting Palestinians might have helped Israel kill him, calling them "sinful hands that cooperated or facilitated the occupier's mission to get these poisonous materials into the body of President Arafat".英國蘇萊大學核能物理學教授雷根在《半島電視台》的報告中評論道:「在公開資訊中,並沒有足夠資訊明確指出釙210是否為、或真的是死因。」Commenting on the Al Jazeera report, Paddy Regan, professor of nuclear physics at Britain's University of Surrey, said "there is not enough information in the public domain to be clear about whether polonium-210 was, or indeed could have been, the cause of death".雷根表示,可能存在其他的解釋,像自然產生的放射。他表示,做出釙210是「謀殺武器」的定論前,必須先排除這些「自然因素」。Regan said there could be several other explanations, such as naturally occurring radioactivity, for the high readings on Arafat's clothing. He said all such "natural sources" must be ruled out before concluding polonium-210 was "a murder weapon".1997年,以色列殺手在約旦因為企圖謀殺一名哈瑪斯資深成員而被捕。哈瑪斯一名指揮官阿馬布奧在2010於杜拜旅館中死亡,以色列也有嫌疑,阿拉伯聯合大公國指出,阿馬布奧是被下藥毒死的。In 1997, Israeli assassins were caught trying to poison a senior member of Hamas in Jordan. Israel is also suspected in the 2010 death in a Dubai hotel room of a Hamas commander, Mahmoud al-Mabhouh, who UAE authorities said had been drugged.阿拉法特遺孀蘇胡.阿拉法特,現居馬爾他和法國,她在海外的奢華生活方式,在巴勒斯坦民眾間飽受爭議。她表示,若確認她丈夫確因陰謀而死,將「更加顯要他的功業」,並讓巴勒斯坦民眾更有決心面對未來與以色列的談判。Suha Arafat, who lives in Malta and France and whose lavish lifestyle abroad has made her a controversial figure among Palestinians, said determining there had been a plot to kill her husband "will glorify more his legacy" and harden Palestinian resolve in any future negotiations with Israel.2010年,美國主導的以巴和平會談因為以色列在西岸興建屯墾區的議題而破裂。U.S.-sponsored peace talks collapsed in 2010 in a dispute over Israeli settlement building in the occupied West Bank.她表示:「阿拉法特想要達成巴勒斯坦人建巴勒斯坦國的理想,就因為這樣,他們要擺脫掉他。」。"Arafat wanted to arrive with the Palestinian cause to a Palestinian state, and because of this they got rid of him," she said.2004年時任以色列外長的夏隆,在當下就否認他的國家與阿拉法特之死有任何干係,稱這種說法是「誹謗、錯誤的」。但以色列稍早曾威脅他,將巴勒斯坦的暴力怪罪於他。Israel's foreign minister in 2004, Silvan Shalom, rejected at the time as "scandalous and false" the idea that his country had a role in Arafat's death. But Israel had earlier threatened Arafat, blaming him for Palestinian violence.2003年9月,以色列有15人因自殺炸彈攻擊死亡,以國安全內閣決定要「除去」阿拉法特,但並未公開行動的細節。以色列一份報紙引用當時迪希特的話,他說,殺了阿拉法特比流放來得好。After losing 15 citizens to suicide bombings in September 2003, Israel's security cabinet decided to "remove" Arafat, without elaborating publicly on the precise action it planned to take. An Israeli newspaper quoted Dichter as saying at the time that it would be better to kill Arafat than exile him.(路透Reuters)關鍵字詞1. polonium (n.) 釙2. autopsy (n.) 驗屍3. exhumation (n.) 掘屍4. coma (n.) 昏迷5. intelligence (n.) 情報

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