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綠色陷阱:倚賴政府救地球 不如民間自己來

立報/本報訊 2012.06.27 00:00
策劃、編譯■李威撰、謝雯伃全球領袖22日結束了聯合國發展高峰會,會中所簽署的協議毫無實際作用,讓許多與會人士深信,若要改善地球環境,倚靠各國政府還不如倚靠個人和企業。Global leaders ended a U.N. development summit on Friday with what was widely considered a lackluster agreement, leaving many attendees convinced that individuals and companies, rather than governments, must lead efforts to improve the environment.近1百個國家和政府的領導人,花3天時間齊聚一堂,試圖建立「永續發展目標」;那是聯合國欲綜合經濟成長、環境和社會發展等面向,奠定的發展目標。然而,在里約熱內盧舉辦的這場峰會上,各國對這些目標缺乏共識;某些簽約國表示,最後簽訂的協議,缺乏承諾、細節及重大目標。Nearly 100 heads of state and government gathered over the past three days in efforts to establish "sustainable development goals," a U.N. drive built around economic growth, the environment and social inclusion. But a lack of consensus over those goals in Rio de Janeiro led to an agreement that even some signatory nations said lacked commitment, specifics and measurable targets.元首大拜拜 高峰會徒具形式 大眾現在對多是高調浮誇的一連串全球性環境政策峰會已不抱多大期待,這種情緒可追溯到2009年的聯合國哥本哈根峰會,那場峰會幾乎是以混亂告終。因此許多生態學者、行動人士和商界領袖認為,環保議題要有所前進,需要靠各地私部門努力,不要再倚賴國際性協議。A series of much-hyped global summits on environmental policy has now fallen short of expectations, going back at least to a 2009 U.N. meeting in Copenhagen that ended in near chaos. As a result, many ecologists, activists, and business leaders now believe that progress on environmental issues must be made locally with the private sector, and without the help of international accords.美國國務卿希拉蕊22日前往里約峰會會場,快速地宣布了美國所支持的幾項非洲發展計畫,以及美國所舉辦的一系列與世界領袖的雙邊對談。她承認,最多也只能這樣了。「單單靠各國政府,不能夠解決我們所面臨的問題,」她表示,「從氣候變遷、持續性貧窮到長期能源短缺這些問題都不行。」U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, who arrived early on Friday for a quick announcement on U.S.-backed projects in Africa and a series of bilateral(1) meetings with various world leaders, admitted as much. "Governments alone cannot solve all the problems we face," she said, "from climate change to persistent poverty to chronic energy shortages."對許多批評家來說,這次峰會最令人困擾的一點在於,各國領袖到里約來,只是為了簽署一項由外交官先行同意過的協議。批評家認為,這份名為「我們想要的未來」的協議,各國總統和總理沒有太多發揮遠見和無畏之處。Most troubling for many critics of the summit is the fact that leaders arrived in Rio merely to sign a text that their diplomats had all but sealed beforehand. The text, dubbed "The Future We Want," left little room for vision or audacity from presidents and prime ministers, critics argued.由於全球經濟衰退、歐洲債務危機惡化和中東地區衝突情事,部分國家或政府並未到場。其中幾個比較著名的缺席者包括美國總統歐巴馬、德國總理梅克爾和英國首相卡麥隆。這3位缺席者都參加了同一週稍早於墨西哥舉行的G20峰會。Some heads of state and government stayed away, given the global economic slowdown, worsening debt woes in Europe and continued violence in the Middle East. Notable absentees(2) included U.S. President Barack Obama, German Chancellor Angela Merkel and British Prime Minister David Cameron, all of whom attended a gathering of the Group of 20 major economies earlier this week in Mexico.1992年的里約地球高峰會簽署了劃時代協議,內容包括一項關於生物多樣性的條款,以及最終催生京都協議書,控制溫室氣體排放量的一系列協定。但這次峰會一開始,大眾便不期待這次Rio+20能夠簽署這種協定。雖然上週峰會的參與人數超過5萬人,但許多人對於各國領袖並未就能源、糧食安全和海洋保育等議題提出確切承諾,感到失望。The summit, known as Rio+20, was never expected to generate the sort of landmark accords signed at the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio, which included a treaty on biodiversity(3) and agreements that led to the creation of the Kyoto protocol on greenhouse emissions. Although this week's meeting attracted more than 50,000 people, many were disappointed that the leaders made few specific commitments on issues ranging from energy to food security to oceans.在3天會期,以及再之前為期1週的會前協商中,里約市中心和近郊舉辦峰會的會議中心周遭,充滿各類行動人士主辦的示威,參與者從印地安部落、環境保護人士到反核示威者都有。Throughout the three-day gathering and weeklong negotiations beforehand, the streets of central Rio and surrounding the suburban conference hall that hosted the summit were filled with demonstrations by activists ranging from Indian tribes to environmentalists to anti-nuclear protesters.菲律賓的免除債務聯盟(Freedom from Debt Coalition)成員舉行抗議,20日在馬尼拉的聯合國辦公室外高舉看板,警告參加2012聯合國永續發展大會的菲律賓代表及各國領袖,不要掉進「綠色經濟是永續發展的工具及機制」的陷阱。(圖文/路透)利益傾軋 各國意見分歧由於峰會協議草稿在各國領袖抵達前便已完成,讓整場峰會從一開始便有已經結束之感。部分與會代表在21日便離開,到了22日稍晚,仍有許多領袖還在對著空盪盪的大會堂發表儀式性演說。The completion of a draft text even before the arrival of government heads gave the gathering itself a sense of finality from the start. Some delegates left on Thursday and by late Friday a handful of leaders were still delivering ceremonial addresses in a large, empty hall.峰會籌備人員指出,這次峰會的目的不在於制定於法有據的協議,而是要開展一個能夠定義一套全新發展原則的進程。Instead of forging legally binding(4) treaties, organizers say, the purpose of the summit was to initiate a process to define a new set of development principles.然而,整個進程就如同大多數的全球外交一樣,充斥著利益衝突,以及富國和發展中國家間的緊張關係。「這次的故事情節與1992年時不同。」巴西會議中心首席協調員拉葛表示,該單位負責籌畫關於最後聲明的會談。But that process, like most global diplomacy, is rife with conflicting interests and tensions between rich countries and the developing world. "The storyline is different from 1992," said Andre Correa do Lago, chief negotiator at the conference for Brazil, which led the final talks on the declaration.「這場峰會比其他幾場更能讓我們看出,並非所有國家都能套用同一種模式。」他補充說道。許多領袖在講台上演說,著墨於他們國家所面臨的不同需求,特別是那些與已發展國家不同的危機。當巴西、中國和其他發展中大國提及他們需要趕上富國的同時,諸如玻利維亞、伊朗和古巴等國則表達了一貫傳統言論,反對資本主義以及制式化的成長定義。"This summit recognizes more than the others that not one size fits all," he added. Many leaders used their time at the podium to note the markedly different needs they were struggling with, especially compared with the developed world. While Brazil, China and other big emerging nations spoke of their need to catch up with rich countries, others like Bolivia, Iran and Cuba unleashed traditional rants against capitalism and conventional definitions of growth.許多發展中國家持續表述的一個論點是,他們需要一筆全球性資金,以此來幫助他們追求發展目標。會前協議中,原本提議提出3百億美元作為這筆經費,但此提議在各國領袖到達就就已被推翻。原本為了達到這項目的,法國提出金融交易稅的構想,但提議也被推翻。One point of contention is what many emerging nations say is a need for a global fund that could help them pursue development goals. Early talk of a $30 billion fund for that purpose as a possible outcome of the summit foundered well before leaders arrived. A French proposal to tax financial transactions for that purpose also failed.希拉蕊.柯林頓在峰會上宣布,美國將投入2千萬美元於非洲潔淨能源計畫。她表示,較好的機制是「政府、私部門和公民社會的合作」。Clinton, announcing a $20 million grant for clean energy projects in Africa, said a better mechanism(5) was "partnerships among governments, private sector and civil society."其他國家、世界銀行和區域性發展銀行也利用這次峰會,展示他們的計畫。聯合國秘書長潘基文21日表示,從去年起,全球私人投資者已承諾要投入超過5百億美元發展再生能源使用。Other countries, the World Bank and regional development banks also used the summit to showcase similar initiatives. U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said on Thursday that private investors since last year had pledged over $50 billion to boost the use of renewable energy sources worldwide.許多與會商界領袖表示,他們迫切想要找到能夠對世界有更多貢獻的方式。然而部分人士警告,私部門計畫雖有幫助,但卻無法取代規範制定和法律執行,為確保全面性的變革得以發生,這些規範是必須的。Many business leaders at the conference said they were eager to find ways to contribute further. But some warned that private initiatives, while helpful, could not be responsible for the rulemaking and law enforcement necessary to ensure that wholesale changes take place.(路透Reuters)關鍵字詞1. bilateral (a.) 雙邊的2. absentee

(n.) 缺席者3. biodiversity

(n.)生物多樣性4. binding

(a.)有約束力的5. mechanism

(n.)機制

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