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甜蜜的代價:「汽水喝太多了!」 紐約市長提禁令

立報/本報訊 2012.06.13 00:00
策劃、編譯■李威撰、謝雯伃紐約市長彭博6月1日大聲為其大杯含糖汽水禁令辯護,指出批評這項提議者「荒誕不經」,並表示他所領導的城市再次在重大健康議題上領導全國。New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg offered a full-throated defense of his proposed ban on large-size sugary sodas on Friday, calling criticism of the proposal "ridiculous" and saying his city is again leading the way in taking on critical health issues.「看遍整個國家,發現民眾都過胖,每個人都因此感到憤怒,卻沒人願意挺身而出採取行動。」彭博在每週固定的廣播節目指出。"I look across this country, and people are obese, and everybody wrings their hands, and nobody's willing to do something about it," Bloomberg said on his weekly radio show.「我指責聯邦政府,它們什麼事都沒做。」在WOR電台約翰.甘博林的節目上,關心健康議題的彭博表示:「我也批評州政府什麼事都沒做;但最後採取行動的還是市政府。」"I would criticize the federal government for not doing anything," the health-conscious Bloomberg added on WOR radio's John Gambling show. "I would criticize the state governments for not doing anything, but in the end, it's the cities that do things."彭博在5月30日提出一項重大計畫,擬禁止在市內大多數餐廳、戲院、熟食店和攤販販賣超過16盎司(約454公克)的含糖汽水。市府官員表示,這項禁令最快將於明年3月開始實施。On Wednesday, Bloomberg proposed a far-reaching (1) ban on sugary sodas larger than 16 ounces (about half a liter) in most restaurants, theaters, delis and vending carts throughout the city. It could take effect as early as next March, city officials have said.彭博所提議的這項禁令,將禁止所有16盎司以上含糖飲料,若賣家不遵守,將處2百美元罰款。禁令提案一出,立刻遭到飲料公司反彈,也有人認為政府過度干涉,公衛專家則表示贊同。The proposed ban, which caps most sugar-sweetened beverages at 16 ounces and carries a $200 fine for vendors that do not comply, met immediate backlash from beverage companies and others who argue it is government overreach (2), but was lauded by public health experts.市長解釋:法案針對窮人而來彭博市長過去發起多項公共健康倡議行動,反汽水行動是最新一項計畫。在他3次任期中,紐約市禁止了在酒吧、餐廳和公共場所吸菸;禁止餐廳使用人造反式脂肪,並要求速食店詳列各項商品卡路里。彭博同時也發起一項倡議運動,欲減少餐廳食物和包裝食品的鹽量。The move against soft drinks is the latest in a string of public health initiatives promoted by the mayor. During his three terms in office the city has banned smoking in bars, restaurants and public places, banned artificial trans fats in restaurant food, and required calorie counts to be posted at fast-food outlets. Bloomberg also leads a campaign to cut salt in restaurant meals and packaged foods.彭博表示,這項提案的目標,是鎖定紐約市較為貧困的居民,他們可能沒有對食品營養有完整的了解。他堅稱,這項提案不是針對諸如百事可樂和可口可樂等大型汽水公司而來。Bloomberg said that the proposal was aimed towards the city's poorer residents who may not have a sophisticated understanding of nutrition (3). He insisted that the measure is not targeted towards big soda companies like PepsiCo and Coca-Cola.「百事公司和可口可樂公司的產品並沒有什麼問題。」過去曾是商界領袖的彭博表示:「他們是負社會責任的公司,他們創造出人們想要購買的商品。這項提案並不是針對這些公司而來。這項提案是針對消費者。」"There's nothing wrong with the products from PepsiCo and Coca-Cola," the former-business-leader-turned-mayor said. "They are responsible companies. They are making stuff that people want to buy. This is not targeted towards those companies. This is targeted the consumer."飲料商抗議:消費者有選擇權世界上最大的飲料商可口可樂,5月31日在一項聲明中對此提案提出抨擊。「紐約市民期待且應該得到更好的政策。」可口可樂公司在聲明中指出:「他們能夠自我選擇他們所購買的飲料。」Coca-Cola, the world's largest soft-drink (4) maker, assailed the proposal in a statement on Thursday. "New Yorkers expect and deserve better than this,'' the Coca-Cola statement said. "They can make their own choices about beverages (5) they purchase."「我們可能離老大哥太接近了。」紐約州眾議院議長蕭華在接受《紐約郵報》採訪時表示:「我只認為我們應該要退一步,檢視並反思我們在這個國家中所擁有的自由。」當被問到對於蕭華的威脅有何看法時,彭博直率地回答:「我不覺得會發生這種事。」"We may be getting too close to Big Brother," New York State Assembly Speaker Sheldon Silver told The New York Post. "I just think we ought to step back and look at the freedoms that we have been given in this country and reflect on them." Asked about Silver's threat, Bloomberg crisply responded that "I don't think that's going to happen.彭博將這次禁令提案所引發的爭議,拿來跟2002年提出在酒吧及餐廳禁菸的提案作比較。Bloomberg went on to compare controversy over the proposal to his 2002 ban on smoking in bars and restaurants.「你認為這很糟嗎?」彭博問道。當初提出禁菸令時:「每個人都反對。現在,實際上每個美國主要城市都這麼做了……整個國家!」"You think this was bad?" Bloomberg asked. With the smoking ban, "everybody was opposed to it. today, virtually every major city in America does it ... whole countries!「如果人們要大吼大叫反對禁令,那我也沒有辦法。我的意思是,他們的反對荒誕不經。」彭博將肥胖稱為「美國境內唯一最大的公共健康議題」。"If people are yelling and screaming, there's nothing you can do about that. I mean, this is ridiculous." Bloomberg called obesity "the single biggest public health issue in the country.''「這是第一種由富人病轉變為窮人病的疾病。」他繼續說道:「看看那些1920年代強盜大亨捧著大肚腩的圖片,他們對自己的肥胖感到驕傲。他們全都早死,但他們直到死前都很驕傲。但今天卻是窮人死的比較多,死亡數字已經破紀錄了。」"It's the first disease that's gone from being a rich person's disease to a poor person's disease,'' he continued. "Look at the pictures of the old robber barons with their big stomachs out in the '20s. They were proud that they were fat. They all died young, but they were proud until that. Today it is poor people who are dying much more. And the numbers are just off the charts."「沒有人試圖剝奪你們的權益。」彭博隨後在廣播中表示:「透過這個方式,我們只是在告訴你們:『汽水喝太多了。』」"Nobody is taking away any of your rights," Bloomberg said later in the broadcast. "This way, we're just telling you ‘That's a lot of soda.'"耶魯大學食物政策羅德中心主任布朗聶爾表示,針對含糖飲料開刀是有道理的,因為這些飲料僅提供卡路里而已,沒有任何營養價值。Kelly Brownell, director of the Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity at Yale University, said targeting sugar sweetened beverages makes sense because they offer empty calories with no nutritional value.另一名市長,費城的納特在華府一場反汽水研討會中表示,他觀察到飲料製造商有所進步,開始販賣起較小杯、低卡路里,甚或零卡路里的產品,但是到目前為止,他們尚未坦白面對在全國體重戰爭中的犯錯者角色。「該產業至少應該要承認,他們自己就是問題來源之一。」他表示。Another city's mayor, Michael Nutter of Philadelphia, told at an anti-soda conference in Washington that he has seen some progress from drink makers selling smaller sizes and low-calorie or no-calorie products, but that so far they are not owning up to their role in the nation's weight struggle."The industry needs to at least acknowledge that they are part of the problem," he said.(路透Reuters)關鍵字詞1. far-reaching (a.) 影響深遠的2. overreach (n.) 過度干預3. nutrition (n.) 營養4. soft-drink (n.) 汽水5. beverage (n.) 飲料

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