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人多好辦事:改變勞動形式 北歐眾包領先全球

立報/本報訊 2012.04.11 00:00
策劃、編譯■李威撰、謝雯伃芬蘭日前一部嘲弄《星艦奇航》的國產電影獲得意料之外的成功,在此鼓勵之下,芬蘭電影工作者沃倫索拉和托爾索寧決定要製作一部更大規模的科幻喜劇,劇情與住在太空的納粹有關。Encouraged by the unexpected success of their homemade film spoofing Star Trek, Finnish filmmakers Samuli Torssonen and Timo Vuorensola decided to create a bigger-scale, sci-fi comedy about Nazis living in space.串聯各界資源 撐起電影夢由於經費短缺且專業團隊人數有限,2名電影工作者向粉絲尋求援助,獲得1百萬歐元的贊助。德國和奧地利投資者也因此被說服,另外再提供數百萬歐元的資金。With little money or professional staff, the two asked fans for help and received 1 million euros ($1.31 million). That, in turn, convinced German and Australian investors to offer several million more.這部名為《Iron Sky》的新片,以諷刺的手法描繪1945年以後避居月球陰暗側的納粹,於2018年重返地球的故事。這部電影的製作過程證實了芬蘭和其他北歐國家的一個正在崛起的現象:用眾包的方式來拍電影、立法或創設科技公司。The new film Iron Sky, a tongue-in-cheek look at Nazis returning to Earth in 2018 after living on the dark side of the moon since 1945, is just one instance of a growing phenomenon in Finland and other Nordic countries - the use of crowdsourcing (1) to make films, create laws or start up technology companies.企業家們表示,北歐國家在眾包上領先全球。數十家企業在芬蘭開發的MySQL和Linux等開放原始碼軟體的帶領下,受益於公眾的熱忱與當地高度的教育水準。Nordic countries are leading the rest of the world in crowdsourcing, entrepreneurs say, with dozens of businesses following the lead of Finnish-born open-source software(2) such as MySQL and Linux to take advantage of public enthusiasm and the region's high education standards.「北歐存在著一股共同合作,分享工作成果的精神。」新創立非營利組織「開放部」創辦人帕坎南表示。該組織鼓勵大眾一同參與,嘗試影響芬蘭立法。"There is a spirit of working together and sharing the benefits of that work," said Joonas Pekkanen, founder of a new non-profit group called Open Ministry which invites the public to take part in trying to influence Finnish legislation.開放部上個月開始運作,在第1個月內收集到將近140個可能法案的想法,範圍涵蓋安樂死合法化到中止日光節約都有。In the past month since its launch, Open Ministry has collected around 140 ideas for possible laws, ranging from legalizing euthanasia (3) to dropping daylight savings (4).芬蘭國會表示,對於任何有5萬份公民簽名的提案均開放接受;帕坎南期待,該組織所促成的第1項法案將在2013年初進行表決。Finland's parliament has said it is open to any proposal with a minimum of 50,000 signatures, and Pekkanen expects the first bill from his venture to be voted on in early 2013.他計畫要在其他允許公民提出法案提案的國家複製這個模式,他將在東歐國家和西班牙推行。He plans to replicate this system in other countries which have systems for citizens to propose laws, and said he had his sights on countries in eastern Europe as well as Spain.ENTHUSIASM, FREE LABOUR免費線上百科維基百科的資料說明了,在芬蘭人和其他北歐人民中,這種異常的文化現象其實相當普遍。Data for Wikipedia, the free online encyclopedia, underlines this cultural anomaly among Finns and other Nordic people.每1百萬名芬蘭人中,就有將近1百人編輯過超過5條的維基百科文章,遠多過英文使用者每1百萬人中近23人編輯超過5條的平均值。挪威人、冰島人和愛沙尼亞人也更常以本國語言編輯條目。Around 100 out of every one million Finns have edited more than five Wikipedia articles, far above the average contribution rate of 23 per million among English-speakers. Norwegians, Icelanders and Estonians contribute to their local-language pages more frequently.有2%的芬蘭民眾回應政府要求,協助將國家檔案數位化的過程,檢查手寫文件轉錄至線上時是否出錯。Two percent of the Finnish population have responded to the government's call to help digitize the national archive by checking whether handwritten documents are properly transcribed online.「芬蘭人總是想要參與:這裡是公民組織的應許之地。」拉米提表示。他所創辦的眾包網站Snipplist.com本週正式上線。該網站邀請使用者於線上分享文章和資訊,目標是透過廣告賺錢。"Finns always want to participate: it's a promised land of citizen organizations," said Kai Lemmetty, whose crowdsourcing startup Snipplist.com opened this week. It invites users to share articles and information online and aims to make money through advertising.報紙媒體也迅速利用了公眾熱忱(也就是免費的意思)的力量。日前挪威1名官員被逮到使用公眾資金資助一名友人的自衛課程,挪威第一大日報《世界之路報》因而在上個月邀請讀者一同檢視大筆政府文件,檢視是否有貪污情事存在。Newspapers have also been quick to take advantage of public - meaning free - enthusiasm. Norway's largest daily Verdens Gang last month asked its readers to comb(5) through large piles of government documents to look for graft after a minister was caught giving public funds to a friend's self-defense course.降低人力支出 外包成新趨勢芬蘭企業家美艾迪倫表示,北歐地區的人工費用高昂,是促成以社群為基礎的軟體興盛發展的主要動力之一。Finnish entrepreneur Ville Miettinen says the high cost of labor in the Nordics is also a major motivation for community-based software development.「在北歐地區,要聘用人才很困難,也很昂貴。」Microtask共同創辦人美艾迪倫表示。該公司幫助企業將誰都會做的工作給外包出去。"It's difficult and expensive to hire people in the Nordics," said Miettinen, co-founder of Microtask, which helps companies outsource parts of their work by finding small processes that can be done by anyone.部分全球最成功的開放性資源軟體就是在北歐被創造出來,這些軟體免費分享程式碼,並歡迎開發者改善現有產品。Some of the world's most successful developments in open-source software, which freely share code and invites developers to improve products, were created in Northern Europe.全球最受歡迎的伺服器作業系統Linux和資料庫軟體MySQL都來自芬蘭。MySQL後由昇陽以10億美元買下,最後又轉賣給甲骨文公司。Linux, the world's most popular operating system on servers, and database software MySQL, which was bought for $1 billion by Sun Microsystems which was in turn acquired by Oracle, both have Finnish roots.另外發源於北歐地區的開放性資源應用包括挪威的QT軟體和荷蘭的Drupal。QT被廣泛應用於行動應用軟體的發展,而全球有數百萬個網站使用Drupal作為內容管理系統。Other open-source applications developed in Northern Europe include Norway's QT software, which is used extensively for mobile app development, and Drupal, a Dutch content management system used for millions of websites.MySQL的創辦人,包括其資料庫創作者威登紐斯在內,正在尋找全新投資標的,社群參與是其中一項主要衡量標準。MySQL's founders, including the database's creator Michael "Monty" Widenius, are looking for new investment targets, with community involvement a key criteria.較新的芬蘭創業公司,像鼓勵大眾創造新音樂的Audiodraft、翻譯公司Transfluent和新照相服務公司Scoopshot也都使用眾包的模式。Newer Finnish startups like Audiodraft, which taps crowds to create new music, translation firm Transfluent and news photo service Scoopshot are also using crowdsourcing.電影工作者沃倫索拉和托爾索寧表示,沒有粉絲的幫助,他們永遠不可能完成電影。這部片於3月底在芬蘭、挪威、德國、奧地利和瑞士等地上映。Filmmakers Vuorensola and Torssonen said they could never have finished their film, which opened this week in theatres in Finland, Norway, Germany, Austria and Switzerland, without their fans' help.有些人甚至從世界的另一頭來提供視覺特效的製作援助,視覺特效在該片的戰爭場面上扮演重要角色。導演沃倫索拉表示,雖然過去已有電影使用過眾包,但《Iron Sky》的大眾參與度是史無前例的。Some travelled from the other side of the world to help with visual effects, which played a key part in the film's battle scenes. While other films have used crowdsourcing before, the level of public engagement in the making of Iron Sky was unprecedented, director Vuorensola said.「除了有趣之外,眾包也讓你獲得許多額外資源;由於帶入圈外人的意見,讓你對你自己正在做的事有更健全的看法。」他說。"In addition to being fun, crowdsourcing gives you a lot of additional resources and it gives you a healthier view of what you are doing as it brings outsiders on board," he said.而眾包擴及的領域越來越多。幫助《Iron Sky》一片製作的眾包網頁現在被用於一齣新歌劇的計畫。And there's more to come. The crowdsourcing web page that helped make Iron Sky is now being used for planning an opera.數百名熱心人士協助了《Free Will》這部眾包歌劇的創作,這齣戲的劇情比納粹居住在外太空還要更怪異,講的是奧斯卡.王爾德、聖女貞德和莫札特共同對抗貪腐的世界領袖。這齣歌劇將在9月在芬蘭莎芳莉娜歌劇音樂節首演。Hundreds of contributors have helped create "Free Will", a crowdsourced opera with a plot even more bizarre than that of Nazis in space: Oscar Wilde, Joan of Arc and Mozart battle corrupt world leaders. The show will premier at Finland's Savonlinna Opera Festival in July.(路透Reuters)關鍵字詞1. crowdsourcing (n.) 眾包2. open source software (n.) 自由/開放原始碼軟體,簡稱OSS3. euthanasia (n.) 安樂死4. daylight saving (n.) 日光節約5. comb (v.) 仔細搜查

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