歧視槍響:連帽衫上街 抗議警方辦案不力

立報/李威撰 2012.03.29 00:00
上週末全美許多城市舉辦抗議,未攜武器的黑人少年遭守望隊員射死,抗議民眾不滿警方未將該名守望隊員逮捕。Rallies are being held in cities across the country this weekend to protest the failure of police to arrest a Florida neighborhood watch volunteer for shooting to death an unarmed (1) black teenager.民眾24日在哥倫比亞、南卡羅來納州、華盛頓特區與芝加哥參加抗議,部分抗議人士穿著連帽衫,打扮成17歲死者馬丁當天的模樣。Protesters, some dressed in "hoodie (2)" hooded sweatshirts like the kind 17-year-old Trayvon Martin wore at the time of his death, gathered for events in Columbia, South Carolina, Washington, D.C. and Chicago Saturday.25日在其他都市也規劃類似抗議,26日在槍擊地點佛州奧蘭多郊區聖福德郡也規劃了抗議活動。Rallies are being planned for other cities Sunday, and a protest is planned Monday in Sanford, Florida, the Orlando suburb where the shooting took place.馬丁2月26日死於槍口下,28歲的西語裔白人(註)守望隊長齊默曼認為,這名連帽杉年輕男子穿越封閉式社區行蹤可疑,齊默曼尾隨在後,隨後兩人發生爭吵。Martin was shot dead on February 26 after George Zimmerman, 28, a white Hispanic neighborhood watch captain, believed the young man walking through the gated community (3) in a hoodie looked suspicious. Zimmerman followed him and an altercation ensued.齊默曼表示,自己是出於自衛。儘管州與聯邦政府展開調查,但並未將他逮捕。Zimmerman has said he was acting in self-defense (4). He has not been arrested, though state and federal authorities are investigating.約3百名來自不同種族與年紀的抗議民眾,於濕冷的24日下午聚集在芝加哥的達利廣場,手中標語寫著「當黑人不是犯罪」與「穿連帽衫不是犯罪」。About 300 people, of various races and ages, gathered in Daley Plaza in Chicago on a cool, wet Saturday afternoon. Protesters held signs with slogans like, "It's not a crime to be black" and "Wearing a hoodie is not a crime."據聞,馬丁遇到齊默曼時,剛從一家便利商店回來,當時他帶著Skittles的彩虹糖跟一罐冰茶。芝加哥31歲抗議民眾羅伯森製做的標語上寫著「小心,我握有Skittles」,下方則用膠帶黏了一包Skittles。Martin reportedly had been returning from a convenience store carrying Skittles candy and a can of iced tea when he encountered Zimmerman. One protester, Tracie Roberson, 31, of Chicago, made a sign that said "BEWARE, I'm packin Skittles," with a box of Skittles taped beneath the words.身為黑人的羅伯森說:「我認為這對我們的族群相當不公。」她認為,馬丁是因為自己的種族才被人盯上。齊默曼的律師蘇能表示,他的委託人是出於自衛,而非種族偏執。"I think it's a big injustice to our people," said Roberson, who is black. She thinks Martin was targeted because of his race. Craig Sonner, Zimmerman's lawyer, said his client was acting out of self-defense, not racial bigotry.羅伯森表示,她通常不涉入政治,但馬丁的案子「著實觸碰到我的心靈,我覺得必須有所作為」。Roberson said she usually did not get involved in politics, but the Martin case "really touched my spirit. I felt I had to do something."現年34歲的芝加哥民眾沃特斯表示,她鮮少參加示威,但「這撩動了我的心弦」,她跟7歲女兒安娜一同穿連帽衫站出來。Takisha Walters, 34, of Chicago said she also usually didn't go to rallies but "this tugged at my heartstrings." Both she and her daughter, Ana, age 7, wore hoodies.同樣也是黑人的51歲芝加哥民眾羅賓森表示,佛州的槍枝管理辦法過於鬆散,他說:「那很可能會發生在我兒子身上。」Andre Robinson, 51, of Chicago, said Florida's gun laws were too lax. "That could have been easily been my son," said Robinson, who is black.據布萊迪防止槍支暴力運動委員會指出,佛州的《堅守立場法》允許民眾在自衛時使用致命武力,美國目前至少有23州施行類似法案。Florida's "Stand Your Ground" law allows people to use deadly force in self-defense. Similar laws are in effect in at least 23 states, according to the Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence.在華盛頓特區,距白宮數個街區之遙的市政廳外頭,同樣也聚集了5百人左右,他們抗議馬丁遭人殺害。許多人身穿連帽衫,他們大多是黑人。At city hall in Washington D.C., which stands a few blocks from the White House, about 500 people gathered to protest Martin's killing. Many were in hooded sweatshirts, and most were black.一名在華盛頓特區號召抗議的人士將這起案件與1955年的提爾案做比較,來自芝加哥的14歲黑人少年提爾在密西西比州據傳調戲一名白人婦女,隨後遭到白人的殺害。One of the D.C. organizers compared the case to that of Emmitt Till, a 14-year-old from Chicago who was murdered by white men in Mississippi in 1955 after reportedly flirting (5) with a white woman.喬治親王警察責任人民聯盟的胡托向群眾表示,馬丁一案「這不僅否定了公民權,也否定了人權」。他說:「我們要求對馬丁與馬丁的社群進行補償。」Jonathan Hutto of the Prince George's People's Coalition for Police Accountability told the crowd that the Martin case "is not only civil rights, but human rights, denied." "We appeal for redress for Trayvon Martin and the Trayvon Martins of society," said Hutto.(路透Reuters)●註:美國是由白宮管理及預算局(OMB)及美國人口調查與統計局(US Census Bureau)來定義種族(race)與族群(ethnicity)的概念,白人是種族,西語裔是族群。美國政府每10年普查一次人口,民眾可自由認定自己的種族,選項包括(1)白人、(2)美洲印第安人與阿拉斯加原住民、(3)亞洲人、(4)黑人或非裔美人、(5)夏威夷原住民或太平洋島嶼居民及(6)其他。族群則是詢問祖籍是來自「西語裔或拉丁裔」或「非西語裔或拉丁裔」兩項。有別於一般見解,美國官方視種族為社會與文化建構的結果,而不是生物學或人類學上的科學定義。(資料參考:美國人口調查與統計局網站及英文維基百科)關鍵字詞1. unarmed (a.) 未武裝的2. hoodie (n.) 連帽衫3. self-defense (n.) 自我防衛4. gated community(n.) 有管理員的封閉式社區5. flirt (v.) 調情、挑逗