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希臘債難了:預算緊縮 民眾過苦日子

立報/本報訊 2012.02.22 00:00
為取得歐盟與國際貨幣基金的新一波紓困,希臘內閣18日批准另外3.25億歐元的撙節方案,完成33億歐元緊縮方案的要求。以下是緊縮方案的主要內容,其中部分規定需另立新法始得施行。Greece's cabinet approved on Saturday 325 million euros ($428 million) of extra austerity measures needed to complete a 3.3 billion euro package of cuts -- the price demanded from Athens for a new EU/IMF bailout. Below are the main measures, some of which may need new legislation.今年3月各國開始提供紓困金之前,希臘政府必須另外再通過預算刪減,幅度達今年國內生產毛額的1.5%或33億歐元。Before any funds are disbursed 1 under the bailout in March, the government must pass a supplementary budget including spending cuts worth 1.5 percent of gross domestic product this year, or 3.3 billion euros ($4.37 billion).根據2月分稍早公布的第一部分緊縮計畫內容,11億歐元的支出緊縮來自衛生部門,主要是減少藥物支出;公部門投資則縮減4億歐元;國防預算縮減3億歐元;退休金制度和中央政府各縮減3億歐元預算。約3.25億歐元左右的支出緊縮稍晚才會詳列公布,其餘部分來自一系列減少部會運作開支的小型措施。A first breakdown of the cuts, issued this month, stated that 1.1 billion euros would come from health spending, mainly by lowering pharmaceuticals prices; 400 million euros from public investment; 300 million euros from the defense budget; 300 million from pension cuts and 300 million from the central government. Some 325 million euros of cuts were put aside to be detailed later, with the remainder to come from a series of smaller measures to reduce ministry operating expenses.雖然最後增添的3.25億歐元緊縮來源有待希臘政府詳列,但2月16日已有2名政府人員向《路透》指出,其中1億歐元的減支來自國防預算;另外9千萬歐元的減支來自公務員減薪,其餘1.35億歐元減支會來自衛生、勞工和內政部門。希臘總理巴帕德莫斯18日表示,減少更多退休津貼開支是無可避免的,但只有月領1,300歐元以上的退休人士才會受到影響。While the final package of measures worth 325 million euros still needs to be officially specified, two government sources told Reuters on Feb 16 that 100 million euros would come from further defense cuts. An extra 90 million will be collected by bringing forward public sector wage reductions and another 135 million from the health, labor and interior ministries, the sources said. Prime Minister Lucas Papademos said on February 18 more cuts to pensions were unavoidable but said only the portion above a monthly threshold of 1,300 euros would be affected.希臘預計4月舉行大選,屆時出線的新政府會在6月提出2013年至2015年共價值1百億歐元的額外緊縮措施細項。In June, the government then in charge following possible elections penciled for April will have to specify additional austerity 2 measures worth 10 billion euros for 2013-2015.透過提高資本或取得紓困金的方式,所有希臘銀行要在2012第3季以前達到核心第一級資本9%的目標,並於2013年第2季之前達到10%。All banks will be required to achieve a core tier-1 capital ratio of 9 percent by the third quarter of 2012 and of 10 percent in the second quarter of 2013, by raising capital themselves and/or receiving bailout funds.從2011年6月開始累積的民營化收入,至少在2012年年底達到45億歐元,到2013年年底則增至75億歐元,2014年年底增至122億歐元,到2015年年底預計要達到150億歐元。Cumulative privatization 3 receipts since June 2011 should be at least 4.5 billion euros by end-2012, 7.5 billion by end-2013, 12.2 billion by end-2014 and 15 billion by end-2015.希臘民營化機構將獲得更多分批出售資產的權力,若無法以目前的形式售出,亦可將資產變現。There will be increased powers for Greece's privatization agency to sell an asset in pieces, or liquidate it if it cannot be sold in its current form.今年將進行全面或部分民營化的公司包括瓦斯公司DEPA、天然氣網絡運營商DESFA及煉油廠希臘石油公司。- The list of companies whose full or partial privatization will be launched in 2012 includes gas company DEPA, gas grid operator DESFA and refiner Hellenic Petroleum.在各國提供紓困金之前,希臘需通過法案,將每月最低基本工資(750歐元)調降22%;25歲以下的工作者的最低工資則刪減32%;隨年資而自動加薪的制度也將取消;降低5%的社會安全捐。Before any bailout funds are disbursed, Greece must pass legislation to reduce the monthly minimum wage, currently at about 750 euros gross, by 22 percent. For people below the age of 25, it will be cut by 32 percent; automatic wage increases based on seniority will be scrapped; social security contributions are to be reduced by 5 percent.2012年將有1萬5千名左右的公務員納入「勞動儲備計畫」,這意味著他們將領取60%的基本薪資,工作1年後將被解雇。另外,每退休5名公務員才會聘任1名新人,目標是在2015年以前裁掉15萬名公務員。About 15,000 state workers will be placed in a "labor reserve" in 2012, meaning they will receive 60 percent of their basic wage and dismissed after a year; one civil servant will be hired for every five retiring, with the aim of cutting the state sector workforce by about 150,000 people by 2015.在獲得任何紓困金之前,希臘必須重新修法,確保有一部分職業開放市場競爭,如基礎健康照護、碼頭工人、會計師、導遊和不動產經紀人。Before receiving any funds, Greece must revise legislation to make sure that a variety of professions are opened up to competition, including primary health care, stevedores, accountants, tourist guides and real-estate brokers.希臘政府2012年的年度總基本赤字不超過20.6億歐元;2013和2014年的基本盈餘至少要分別達到36億和95億歐元,上述可隨變動作調整。For 2012, the annual general government primary deficit 4 should not exceed 2.06 billion euros. For 2013 and 2014 the primary surplus should be at least 3.6 billion euros and 9.5 billion euros respectively. The figures above are subject to change.雅典當局預估2011年的中央政府預算赤字約占國內生產毛額的9.1%~9.4%,按此水準,2012年至2014年的中央政府預算赤字必須減少7個百分點。如果經濟成長率比預期來得低,此財政目標的實現可往後延長1年至2015年。In 2012-2014, the general government budget deficit must be reduced by 7 percentage points from a 2011 level which Athens forecasts at between 9.1 and 9.4 percent of GDP. The fiscal targets may be stretched by one year into 2015 if economic growth is weaker than expected.2012和2013年整體經濟將萎縮4%至5%,預估2013年開始復甦,2014和2015兩年的經濟成長率預估是2.5%至3%。The economy is seen shrinking overall by 4-5 percent in 2012 and 2013. Recovery is expected to begin in 2013, with the economy growing at a pace of 2.5-3 percent in each of 2014 and 2015.歐盟歐洲金融穩定機制的救援基金與歐洲央行進行的債務交換協議,皆以緊縮方案為法律基礎。The bill lays out the legal groundwork for the EU's EFSF rescue fund and the European Central Bank to facilitate a planned debt swap deal.達350億歐元的「歐洲央行信用增強機制協定」提供希臘資金,重新買回希臘國債,由歐洲央行出面,代替希臘政府出資買回部分目前由歐元區內各國央行所持有的希臘國債。A 35-billion euro "ECB Credit Enhancement Facility Agreement" will enable Greece to finance a repurchase 5 agreement whereby the ECB, acting on Greece's behalf, would offer to buy back some Greek government bonds held by euro zone central banks.歐洲金融穩定機制將提供3百億歐元當作債務交換的誘因。The European Financial Stability Facility will make 30 billion euros available as a sweetener for the debt swap.(路透Reuters)

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