回到頂端
|||

蕃新聞

熱門: 黃國昌 觀光業 強酸

保衛土地正義:中國強制徵地 農民怒氣升溫

立報/本報訊 2012.02.15 00:00
策劃、編譯■李威撰、謝雯伃去年9月中國廣東爆發震驚國際的烏坎事件,農村土地徵收問題再次浮上檯面,中外學術單位在本月初公布一項聯合調查,用數據呈現中國日益嚴重的社會矛盾問題。報告指出,日本、南韓與台灣的經濟奇蹟是以農民的土地權益為基礎,中國要解決城鄉差距並促進農村繁榮,就必須推動農村土地改革。根據日前公布的一項調查顯示,中國有超過半數的農民對於農村政策不滿。7日公布的調查指出,中國政府掠奪農村土地的案例激增;在數百萬農民離開農村到城市討生活之時,農地出現轉型成大農場的趨勢。More than half of Chinese farmers are unsatisfied with rural policies, according to a survey published on Tuesday that showed rising cases of agricultural land seizures by the state and a trend towards bigger farms as millions leave villages for work in cities.中國總理溫家寶日前表示,在土地徵收的問題上,中國政府並沒有提供農民足夠保障,讓許多農民認為只拿到微不足道的補償。Premier Wen Jiabao said at the weekend that China's government failed to give farmers enough protection from land confiscation (1) for what many of them see as paltry compensation (2).這次調查由西雅圖的美國農村發展研究(又稱蘭德沙鄉村發展研究所)進行,共1,791名農民受訪。調查報告用統計的方式呈現農民因商業發展而失去土地的不滿程度,廣東省烏坎村去年就因為土地徵收轉為商用,引發長達10天的戲劇性抗爭行動。The survey of 1,791 farmers overseen by the Landesa Rural Development Institute, based in Seattle, gave statistical flesh to the extent of complaints over losses of land to commercial development, an issue that triggered a dramatic ten-day confrontation in Wukan Village in Guangdong province last year.該報告摘要中提到:「因此,不難想見不滿的農民人數以2比1的比例多於滿意的農民人數。」根據寄發給《路透》的報告摘要指出,有36.7%受訪者表示,他們對政策「不滿意」;有16.7%的人表示「非常不滿意」。相反地,只有2.8%的受訪者表示他們「非常滿意」。"It is, therefore, not surprising that dissatisfied farmers outnumber the satisfied by a margin of two to one," said a summary of the survey, which found 36.7 percent of respondents said they were "dissatisfied" and 16.7 percent said they were "very dissatisfied." The summary was emailed to Reuters. By contrast, 2.8 percent of respondents said they were "very satisfied."「為了要終結對土地持有的不安全感,並改善7億農村人口的福利,中國政府必須考慮對土地持有制度進行根本改革,並強制落實。」美國農村發展研究所研究者在報告摘要中指出。"To make an enduring dent in tenure insecurity and to improve welfare for its 700 million rural people, China must consider carrying out fundamental reforms of the tenure system and strict enforcement on the ground," the Landesa researchers said in their summary.溫家寶曾表示,他也希望更加嚴格執行農地保護,並為土地強制徵收一事提供更多補償;但中國共產黨也曾表示,將會保留集體共有的土地制度。Wen has said that he too wants stricter protection of farmland and more compensation for land seizures, but the Communist Party government has also said it will keep to its system of collectively-owned land.根據《新華社》報導,溫家寶日前在廣東曾表示:「目前普遍的問題是甚麼?是政府強行徵收農民土地,農民對此有所抱怨,甚至因而激起群體性事件。」「群體性事件」是中共當局對示威活動、暴動和公眾請願的官方委婉說法。"What is the widespread problem now? It's the arbitrary seizure of farmers' fields, and the farmers have complaints about this, and it's even sparking mass incidents," Wen said in Guangdong on Saturday, according to a Xinhua news agency report. "Mass incidents" is the official euphemism (3) for protests, riots and mass petitions.中國農民並非直接擁有他們的土地。事實上,大多數農村土地是由村民集體所有,農民則是以長達數十年的租約承租土地。Farmers in China do not directly own most of their fields. Instead, most rural land is owned collectively by a village, and farmers receive leases that last for decades.理論上,村民能夠共同決定村有土地是否要賣出或開發。但實際上,各省官員通常會替他們決定。在希望贏得投資和收益的情況下,各省官員常忽視農民的意願。In theory, the villagers can collectively decide whether to apply to sell off or develop land. In practice, however, state officials usually decide. And hoping to win investment and revenues, they often override the wishes of farmers.美國農村發展研究所的調查於2011年年中進行,橫跨17個省份;調查結果發現,從1990年代晚期開始,43.1%的農村曾經歷過用於非農耕目的「土地徵收」。報告中亦有一份圖表顯示,自2007年起,這類的強制徵地事件大幅增加。The Landesa survey, done across 17 provinces in mid-2011, found 43.1 of villages had experienced "takings of land" for non-farming uses since the late 1990s, and an accompanying graph showed that such takings rose dramatically from 2007.在該調查的摘要中指出:「在所有受訪案例中,有77.5%的村民獲得部分賠償;9.8%獲得承諾卻尚未獲得賠償;12.7%既沒獲得承諾、亦無獲得補償。」Villagers "received some compensation in 77.5 percent of all cases as promised but did not receive compensation in 9.8 percent of cases, and were neither promised, nor received compensation in 12.7 percent of cases," said the survey summary.中國各地地方政府近年來不斷推動大膽的改革計畫,將零碎土地予以整合,變成較大型農地或村莊,也將整合過後的土地租給投資型農民或公司。Local governments across China have pushed increasingly bold reforms to merge patchwork fields and settlements into larger farm tracts and villages, with aggregated fields rented to investor-villagers or companies.隨著越來越多居民離開村莊,出外尋找穩定長期工作,土地整合趨勢也就更為增強,無視於大多數離家農民其實想要保留住故鄉土地。中國有將近1億5,300萬移工居住在家鄉以外的地區。That trend has been reinforced by the growing numbers of residents leaving villages to find long-term work, although most of them say they want to keep their land. China has about 153 million migrant workers (4) living outside their hometowns.調查發現,17.7%村莊曾執行或正在執行這些土地整合計畫,受到影響的農民中,有52%失去所有的農地。The survey found 17.7 percent of villages have conducted out such land consolidation plans or are doing so, and 57.2 percent of the villagers affected were left without any farmland.摘要中提到:「整體而言,這裡的景況令人不安,因為這項全新都市化計畫一開始的目的是要保存並開墾中國部分農地。」「然而,只有一小部分閒置住宅用地,和一小部分閒置農地,被用在農耕用途。」"The overall picture here is troubling, because this new urbanization (5) program was started in an attempt to preserve and reclaim some of the country's farmland," said the summary. "Instead, only a small percentage of the vacated residential land - and a minority of even the vacated farmland - is being used for agricultural purposes."(路透Reuters)關鍵字詞Key Words1. confiscation (n.) 徵用、充公2. compensation (n.) 補償(金)3. euphemism(n.) 委婉的表達方式4. migrant worker (n.) 移工5. urbanization(n.) 都市化

社群留言