蘇格蘭拚獨立:凝聚民意支持 薩孟德訴諸歷史情感

立報/本報訊 2012.02.02 00:00
策劃、編譯■李威撰、謝雯伃蘇格蘭首席大臣薩孟德11日表示,蘇格蘭將於2014年秋天舉行獨立公投,並於1月25日在蘇格蘭議會公布公投的內容及時間,強調這是蘇格蘭3百年來的頭等大事。位在倫敦的中央政府雖表示同意,但雙方卻因各有盤算而在細節上缺乏共識。▲一名穿著蘇格蘭裙的男子,站在愛丁堡城堡的門口,圖攝於1月25日。(圖文/路透)在見證蘇格蘭人與英格蘭人兵戎相向數世紀之久的愛丁堡城堡裡,蘇格蘭民族主義領袖艾力斯.薩孟德提出計畫,欲以投票箱取代刀劍來爭取自由。Holding court in Edinburgh castle surrounded by sabres and armour from centuries-old battles with the English, Scottish nationalist leader Alex Salmond sets out his plans to fight for freedom by the ballot box rather than the sword.薩孟德引述18世紀蘇格蘭民族詩人羅伯特.博恩斯的作品來為其聲明背書,他在博恩斯誕辰當天公布公投計畫,表示終結蘇格蘭3百年來由英格蘭主導的聯盟關係是不可避免的,並抨擊聯合王國這個過時的想法。Peppering his arguments with references to Scotland's 18th century national poet Robert Burns, on whose birthday this week he launched his referendum (1) bid, Salmond portrayed the end of Scotland's 300-year union with a dominant England as inevitable, and the idea of a United Kingdom as anachronistic (2).薩孟德選擇在愛丁堡城堡向國際媒體公布這項計畫,愛丁堡城堡座落於死火山上、守望著蘇格蘭首都的天際線。薩孟德表示:「就是在這裡,愛丁堡城堡,於9百年前舉辦了最早的、最古老的蘇格蘭議會。」這座城堡同樣也是蘇格蘭人和英格蘭人間無數血腥戰役的發生地。Salmond chose Edinburgh castle, a fortress that dominates the Scottish capital's skyline from its rocky perch on an extinct volcano, to sell his case to the international press. "It was in this venue, Edinburgh castle, that the first ... old Scots parliament was held almost 900 years ago," Salmond said. The castle was also the site of numerous bloody battles between Scots and the English.薩孟德補充道:「這的確強調作為蘇格蘭民族的蘇格蘭,其延續性可往前追溯至1707年《聯合法案》之前獨立的1千年。」將蘇格蘭放在聯合王國是歷史的錯誤。"It does stress the continuity of Scotland as a Scottish nation stretching back over 1,000 years of independence before the Acts of Union of 1707," he added, painting Scotland's place in the United Kingdom as a historic aberration.目前約有30%至40%的蘇格蘭民眾支持獨立,在說服其他持懷疑態度的蘇格蘭民眾上,薩孟德還有一場硬仗要打。這些懷疑者當中,部分人士對薩孟德的疑慮不亞於對獨立的疑慮。Still, with support for outright independence running at 30 to 40 percent he has a tough battle ahead to convince sceptical Scots, of whom some have almost as many misgivings (3) about Salmond as they do about independence.英國政府表示,只有政府有權給予薩孟德舉辦具約束力公投的權力,且符合某些條件,如公投所提的問題。政府官員將與薩孟德會面,希望能達成妥協共識。The British government says only it has the right to give Salmond the power to hold a binding referendum, and then only with conditions, including on the questions asked. Government officials are due to meet Salmond to try to reach a compromise.英國在北海的石油礦藏是目前雙邊的一大利益爭執點。由於愛丁堡是北海油礦的門戶之地,薩孟德聲稱蘇格蘭擁有90%的油礦。At stake are British oil reserves in the North Sea to which Edinburgh is a gateway. Salmond claims Scotland is entitled to 90 percent of them.針對英國要如何與蘇格蘭分配其債務和軍隊,還有英國核子武器的存放問題,都已引發激烈且引人憂慮的辯論。英國目前將核子武器存放於蘇格蘭,但蘇格蘭國家黨誓言在獨立後不再提供這個空間。Debates over how Britain would divide up its debt and its military and what it would do with its nuclear weapons, currently based in Scotland but which the SNP vows would have no place there after independence, are already bitter and fraught.對薩孟德和蘇格蘭國家黨來說,獨立牽涉到平等和是否能發揮蘇格蘭潛力的問題。蘇格蘭國家黨表示,蘇格蘭有權與世上其他國家擁有平等地位,目前其經濟運行良好,但獨立後會更好。For Salmond and the SNP, independence is about equality and fulfilling Scotland's potential. Scotland deserves to have equal status among world nations, and while doing well economically now, it would do much better alone, the SNP says.獨立的蘇格蘭將有更多力量來改善經濟,並在歐盟擁有更多發言權。視伊拉克戰爭為不法戰爭的該黨官員表示,蘇格蘭有權決定要將軍隊派往何處。A separate Scotland would have more power to improve its economy and would be able to better argue its case in the European Union. It would control where it sends soldiers to fight, say party officials who consider the Iraq war illegal.薩孟德在1月25日表示:「我們將能把蘇格蘭打造成我們知道它可以成為的樣子,一個更富有、更公平的國家。」"We will be able to make Scotland the country we all know it can be -- a wealthier, fairer nation," Salmond said on Wednesday.他引用博恩斯描寫平等的一首著名詩歌〈無論如何人就是人〉,藉此嘲諷英國上議院成員,因為他觀察到上議院成員對蘇格蘭一直抱著高高在上的態度。He quoted Burns' famous poem on equality, "A Man's a Man for A' That," to mock members of the British parliament's upper house, the House of Lords, for, as he saw it, bossing Scotland about.薩孟德希望2014年下半年舉行投票,屆時是蘇格蘭人戰勝英格蘭人的班諾克本戰役滿7百週年,他希望能藉此歷史時刻激起蘇格蘭人的民族主義情感。且到時蘇格蘭也將主辦大英國協運動會和萊德盃高爾夫球賽,這些體育賽事亦可博取民眾的現代良好觀感。Salmond wants a ballot in late 2014, when he would be able to ride a wave of nationalist sentiment on the 700th anniversary of the historic Battle of Bannockburn, a victory over the English, and the more modern feel-good factor of hosting the Commonwealth Games and Ryder Cup sporting events.目前為止,統一派政治人物步調不一,無法壓抑薩孟德氣勢。無論是保守黨、工黨或自由民主黨這幾個主要政黨,都沒有出現統一派立場的發言人。So far, unionist politicians appear uncoordinated and have done little to check Salmond's momentum. No unionist spokesperson has emerged among the Conservatives, Labour or Liberal Democrats, Britain's main political parties.蘇格蘭國家黨的選戰負責人指出,統一派藉由強調蘇格蘭獨立後的風險和缺點來恐嚇蘇格蘭人,證明英格蘭人認為蘇格蘭人是「太窮、太笨、太邊緣」,以至於無法獨力自存。The SNP has portrayed their attempts to highlight the risks and disadvantages of Scottish independence as scaremongering (4) and proof England thinks Scots are "too poor, too stupid, too peripheral" to stand alone, the SNP's campaign manager said.蘇格蘭保守黨領袖露斯.大衛森向《路透》表示:「我們要做的事是,讓英國成為一個正面的例子。我很清楚,在這個世上存在最久也最成功的聯合體中,蘇格蘭是較佳的一個成員。」"What we have to do is make a positive case for Britain. I'm very clear that Scotland is better off in one of the most enduring and successful unions across the world," Scottish Conservative party leader Ruth Davidson told Reuters.她補充道:「我們必須要證明,身為聯合王國的成員,我們能走得更遠、講話更大聲、站得更穩……大多數蘇格蘭人都同意我。」接著她開始細數英格蘭和蘇格蘭在軍事、科學及文化上的共同成就。"We have to show that we walk taller, shout louder, stand firmer for being part of the United Kingdom .... most of Scotland agrees with me," she added, before going on to list Anglo-Scots military, scientific and cultural achievements.蘇格蘭工黨領袖拉蒙特表示:「這不是一個受英國人壓迫、尋求解放的國家,不是像薩孟德想的那樣。」她在位於荷里路德的蘇格蘭議會中表示。蘇格蘭議會面對著荷里路德宮,那是英國女王在蘇格蘭的居所。"This is not a country oppressed by the English, seeking liberation, with Alex Salmond the man to do it," Scottish Labour leader Johann Lamont said, speaking at the Scottish parliament at Holyrood, which faces Holyrood Palace, the British Queen's residence in Scotland.蘇格蘭國王詹姆斯6世在1603年繼承英格蘭王位,蘇格蘭與英格蘭的王權合一;約莫1個世紀之後,雙方議會根據1707年的《聯合法案》而彼此結合。The crowns of Scotland and England were unified in 1603 by a Scottish king, James VI, upon his accession to England's throne (5). The two countries' parliaments were unified about a century later by the Acts of Union in 1707.當被《路透》問到博恩斯是否曾支持蘇格蘭獨立時,薩孟德表示,他認為這名詩人會喜歡在他誕辰當天所公布的公投計畫。Asked by Reuters whether Burns would have supported Scottish independence, Salmond said he thought the poet would have liked the idea of the referendum plan being launched on his birthday.博恩斯逝世的居所位於丹佛里斯,他在那兒的房舍寫下最令人懷念的詩篇。當地博物館員並不確定博恩斯是否曾想過蘇格蘭獨立一事。At the house in Dumfries in which Burns died and where he wrote some of his most memorable poetry, the museum attendant was not sure what Burns would have thought about independence.在丹佛里斯博物館服務超過25年的唐納.麥克拉漢表示:「他確實是一個民族主義者,不過我不確定他是否想要追求完全的自由。」"He was certainly a nationalist, but whether he wanted to be completely free I don't know," said Donald MacLachlan, who has worked at Dumfries museums for 25 years.(路透Reuters)關鍵字詞Key Words1. referendum (n.) 公民投票2. anachronistic (a.) 落伍的3. misgiving(n.) 疑慮4. scaremongering (n.) 散布恐懼5. throne(n.) 王位