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熱門: 地震 妙禪 空汙

占領運動 新年新希望:拒絕組織化 運動者持續靠夢想驅策

立報/本報訊 2012.01.12 00:00
策劃、編譯■李威撰、謝雯伃2011年,此起彼落的抗議聲浪席捲全球,美國亦爆發反華爾街抗議,使得「占領」一詞成為美國2011年最熱門的關鍵字之一,在新的一年裡,如何延續及擴張既有的成果,成為抗議者最關心的問題,而他們所提出的辦法,也值得台灣的社運人士作參考。對占領華爾街來說,這是個漫長寒冷的冬天。這起示威始於去年9月,讓全美關注收入不均及權貴的貪婪。現在,占領華爾街運動邁入2012年,無領導者的運動參與者發展出一些新的策略和技巧,讓他們眼中的經濟體系不公持續受人關注。以下是占領華爾街幾個試圖發展的方向:It's been a long, cold winter already for Occupy Wall Street, the protest movement that burst onto the scene in September to focus national attention on income inequality and the perceived greed of the rich and powerful. Now, as Occupy heads into 2012, participants in the leaderless movement are developing a range of new strategies and tactics to keep what they view as the injustices of the economic system in the spotlight. Here are some ways the Occupy movement is trying to evolve:占領選舉 OCCUPY THE ELECTION大眾將占領運動與興起於2009年的保守派茶黨運動聯想在一起,茶黨推波助瀾讓數十名共和黨員進入國會。不過許多占領華爾街的參與者特別反對選舉政治,他們認為選舉制度無可救藥地受到金錢污染。Occupy has been likened to the conservative Tea Party movement, which emerged in 2009 and helped elect dozens of Republicans. But many in the Occupy movement specifically reject electoral politics, which they see as hopelessly tainted by money.在目前的選舉周期中,占領運動主要進行的活動是遊行、靜坐,或是在造勢場合為難候選人。在愛荷華州的黨團造勢會議中,歐巴馬、共和黨總統參選人金瑞契和保羅都遭到一些占領者的干擾。占領者組成的小團體也鎖定紐澤西州長克里斯蒂,在他為金瑞契的對手羅姆尼助選時出面抗議。身為私募基金投資人而致富的羅姆尼也被取了「百分之一先生」的綽號。In the current election cycles, it appears the main Occupy activities will be rallies, sit-ins (1), and heckling candidates on the stump. During the Iowa caucus campaign, a handful of occupiers interrupted speeches by Obama and by Republican presidential candidates Newt Gingrich and Ron Paul. Small groups also targeted New Jersey Governor Chris Christie as he campaigned for Gingrich's rival Mitt Romney, and stuck Romney himself, who got rich as a private equity investor, with the moniker (2) "Mr. One Percent."占領經濟 OCCUPY THE ECONOMY占領華爾街運動認為銀行是造成美國數十年來最嚴重經濟衰退的罪魁禍首。該運動推行的倡議活動中,有幾項較為成功,其中之一就是鼓勵消費者將存款移出商業銀行,改存非營利信用合作社。1個多月後,信用合作社竟吸引數十萬新顧客。為留住顧客,美國銀行因此取消轉帳卡每月5美元的月費。這項月費政策一直廣受批評,占領運動稱此為一項勝利。The Occupy movement blames the banks for the worst U.S. recession in decades. And one of its more successful initiatives has been a campaign urging consumers to move their money from the commercial banks to not-for-profit credit unions; in a little over a month, credit unions pulled in hundreds of thousands of new customers. Bank of America also scrapped a widely criticized $5 monthly fee for debit cards (3), which the Occupy movement claimed as a victory.部分示威者團體試圖提出替代銀行體制的方案,其他人則推動相關立法。奧克蘭和舊金山示威者舉著標語,呼籲回歸大蕭條時代的《格拉斯-史蒂格法案》,該法區分投資及商業銀行。占領華爾街組成的委員會「占領證券管理委員會」則呼籲政府嚴格執行伏克爾法則,該法則禁止各銀行使用存款人的資金從事投機性投資。Some groups of protesters are trying to come up with alternative banking systems. Others are pushing for legislation. Protesters in Oakland and San Francisco have carried placards calling for a return to the Depression-era Glass-Steagall Act, which separated investment banking and commercial banking. Occupy the SEC, a committee of Occupy Wall Street, is calling for tough implementation of the so-called Volcker Rule, which would bar U.S. banks from using depositor's funds for speculative (4) investments.西岸地區,示威者兩度包圍港口,讓貨櫃運輸站停工達24小時。但拒絕跨越封鎖線的卡車司機、碼頭工人和裝卸工因此無法得到該日薪資,他們質疑此舉究竟幫助或傷害了誰。去年12月12日,占領者擬發動圍困各港口的行動,國際碼頭與倉庫工會公開反對這項計畫;國際卡車司機工會則採取中立。On the West Coast, demonstrators have twice picketed at ports, shutting down shipping terminals for up to 24 hours. But truckers, stevedores and longshoremen who refused to cross picket lines lost pay, raising the question of whom the action was helping, or hurting. The International Longshore and Warehouse Union publicly opposed the December 12 action that aimed to shut down ports, while the International Brotherhood of Teamsters took a neutral stance.占領住屋 OCCUPY HOUSING去年12月,示威者發動了「占領我們的家園」活動,試圖奪回被取消贖回權的房子。當天,占領者在加州奧克蘭和紐約布魯克林各佔據一棟房子,要求借款方與屋主重新協商貸款相關事宜。「全國占領我們的家園」活動組織幹部漢姆林表示,抗議者在未來幾個月內,目標要在全美發動超過1百起類似的活動。In December protesters launched Occupy Our Homes, a bid to take back foreclosed homes. Occupiers took up residence in a home in Oakland, California and one in Brooklyn, New York, that day, demanding that lenders renegotiate mortgages for the homeowners. National Occupy Our Homes organizer Matt Browner Hamlin said protesters had set a goal of over 100 such "actions" around the country in the next few months.占領亞特蘭大團隊已經宣稱勝利,占領亞特蘭大的法蘭岑表示,該團隊已迫使摩根大通提供屋主布莉姬.沃克更寬的貸款條件。在其他地方,占領我們的家園則遭到強硬抵抗。在跨年夜之前,地方警察逮捕奧克蘭一間住宅中的占居者。占據者表示,他們把那棟房子當成「擔保品」。這是奧克蘭警方第2次把占領者趕出私人住宅,這表示占領私人住屋可能與在公園中露營一樣具挑戰性。The Atlanta group is already claiming victory; Occupy Atlanta member Tom Franzen says it forced JPMorgan Chase to offer more generous terms to homeowner Birgitte Walker. Elsewhere, the Occupy Our Homes movement has run into stiff resistance. Just before New Year's Eve, police arrested squatters in an Oakland home they were holding "as collateral (5)." It was the second time police had driven Oakland occupiers from a private residence, suggesting that squatting in homes may be just as challenging as camping in parks.占領網路 OCCUPY CYBERSPACE占領運動是由社交媒體促成,行動人士現在希望在成功操作臉書、推特和YouTube的基礎上,使用嶄新的工具及科技。該團隊成立StudioOccupy.org,讓各地示威者能夠輕易在線上分享、編輯影片和其他的多媒體呈現方式。The Occupy movement has been driven by social media, and activists are now moving to build on their successful use of Facebook, Twitter and YouTube with new tools and technology. The group rolled out StudioOccupy.org, which allows protesters to easily share and edit videos and other multimedia presentations online.部分示威者已開始使用iPhone、iPad和Android的應用程式Vibe,讓使用者能夠傳送訊息給其他使用者,警察或其他外人無法看見。Vibe可以匿名傳送訊息,且使用者可以控制訊息要傳播的距離(從150英尺到全世界)及傳播的時間(在設定的時間過後,訊息會消失不留下任何蹤跡,時間設定範圍從15分鐘到30天不等)。Some protesters have also begun to use "Vibe," an application for iPhones, iPads and Android that allows the user to send messages that are only visible to other users, and not to police or other outsiders. Vibe messages are anonymous, and users can control how far they are broadcast (from 150 feet to worldwide) and for how long (the messages disappear after a set time period ranging from 15 minutes to 30 days, leaving no trail).這類科技的運用,能讓示威運動有效動員,以毋須上下層級的方式有效組織。過去社會運動需要一名領袖將命令下達給副手,再由副手將命令傳給步兵。不過現在任何一個人隨時都能夠發起一項示威活動,群眾可以當下決定誰發起的行動較值得關注。The use of such technology enables the movement to mobilize and organize efficiently without a top-down hierarchy. Social movements in the past required a leader to put out orders to lieutenants who passed them along to the foot soldiers, but now any individual can call a protest at any time, with the crowd deciding on the spur of the moment whose call to action deserves attention.占領實際空間 OCCUPY REAL SPACE美國警方對大都會地區的占領營區進行掃蕩,讓大眾認為所有占領營區均已被驅逐。不過,帳篷社區仍舊靜靜地抵抗著。Police raids on the big metropolitan camps created the appearance that all occupy camps were evicted. But tent communities have quietly persisted.雖說目前尚無正式統計,對占領運動採同情態度的新聞網站Firedoglake認為全美國有65個帳篷社區預計會撐過冬天。其中最明顯的,可能是於華府麥佛森廣場的一處占領特區營地。這個營地所在地僅離白宮幾個街區之遙,已經隨氣候轉變增加了帳篷設施,更添置冬天用的睡袋。While no official count exists, Firedoglake, a news website sympathetic to the movement, counted 65 tent communities in the United States that were expected to last through the winter. Perhaps the most visible, an Occupy DC camp in Washington's McPherson Square, a couple of blocks from the White House, has weatherized its tents and obtained winter sleeping bags.遭驅逐的露營者並未完全放棄先前占領的空間:跨年夜時,數百名民眾聚集在曼哈頓下城的祖科提公園,有68人在試圖移開警方封鎖線時遭逮捕。Evicted campers have not all abandoned their former spaces either: on New Year's Eve, hundreds of people gathered at Zuccotti Park in lower Manhattan and 68 were arrested when they tried to remove police barricades.是否應占據實體空間,已激起活動參與人士辯論。有些人認為營地是必須的,可做為行動基地,同時也是戲劇性的象徵,或是成為平等社會的模範。另一派則認為,營地的庶務和組織挑戰,讓團體無法集中精神在更有效的策略思考,進而無法促進社會改變。不過大多數人預估,春天來臨後,全美會萌生新一批的帳篷城。Questions about physical space have stimulated a debate within the movement. Some argue that camps are essential as bases for operations, as dramatic symbols or as model egalitarian communities. Others say housekeeping and organizational challenges in the camps have drained the group's energy away from more effective tactics for social change. But most predicted that spring would find a new blooming of tent communities around the country.占領文化 OCCUPY CULTURE示威者口號是「我們是99%」,指的是富有的1%實際上壟斷所有金錢、財富和影響力。該口號在全美獲得迴響,該運動的修辭很快成為流行文化的一部分。占領這個,占領那個,過去很少找到一個單字能夠這麼快地從屈居字典一角變成大眾流行用語。諸如「誰的街道?我們的街道」和「銀行得到紓困,我們被賣掉」等歌謠很快成為瑯瑯上口的旋律,就像上一代示威者對鮑比.迪倫的音樂耳熟能詳一般。The protesters' slogan "We are the 99 percent," which refers to a view that the richest 1 percent have a virtual monopoly on money, power and influence, has struck a chord across the country, and the movement's rhetoric has quickly become a part of popular culture. Occupy this, occupy that -- there are few examples of a single word jumping so quickly from the middle pages of the dictionary to the forefront of public conversation. Chants like "Whose streets? Our streets" and "banks got bailed out, we got sold out" were suddenly as familiar as snatches of Bob Dylan songs were to a previous generation of protesters.不過,除了文化議程之外,占領運動的示威者還有更大的野心。他們選擇組織運動的方式是歡迎每一個人、避免階級出現、讓每一位參與者發聲;藉此,他們希望為社會其他部分樹立典範。But Occupy protesters have a much more ambitious cultural agenda. In the way they have organized their movement, by welcoming everyone, eschewing hierarchy, and allowing a voice to whoever shows up, they hope to set an example for the rest of society.(路透Reuters)關鍵字詞Key Words1. sit-in (n.) 靜坐抗議2. moniker(n.) 綽號3. debit card (n.) 轉帳卡、扣帳卡4. speculative (a.) 投機的5. collateral(n.) 擔保品

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